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Exploring myth

Ancient Aliens?

Anyone who has an interest in mythology, especially that of ancient Egypt, for any significant amount of time has no doubt crossed paths with the “ancient astronaut” thesis. In an over-simplified nutshell, it asserts that the gods of the religions of the ancient world were actually extraterrestrials, and their supposed supernatural abilities were merely the product of advanced scientific technology, etc. I first encountered this back in the 90s via rebuttals from religious apologists to the works of Erich Von Daniken & Zechariah Sitchin. While a fascinating idea for entertainment value (in fact it’s been utilized quite heavily in cinema, comic books, science fiction, etc.), the arguments weren’t all that compelling to me and also seemed rather blasphemous towards the religious beliefs I had at the time. So I dismissed the idea and never really paid it anymore attention after that. Naturally, therefore, when the History Channel launched an entire television series based on the thesis, titled Ancient Aliens, I just rolled my eyes and went on about my business without thinking much of it. And because of that, I procrastinated for far too long before finally opening my invitation to the ‘debunking Ancient Aliens’ party. So I’m apparently well past the point of being “fashionably late.” Oh well.

Anyway, I recently found myself channel surfing during a day off from work and for the first time I finally viewed an entire episode of Ancient Aliens. It was the fourth episode, titled “The Mission.”

At around 25:27 into the episode, the commentators begin to speculate that in times past extraterrestrials performed genetic experiments on terrestrial life to produce chimeras composed of both human and animal features. Like most things assertions made on this show, it sounds cool, like something out of a comic book or sci-fi novel- but what was the presented to evidence to support this? Ancient Egyptian artwork of the Egyptian gods. Yep, that’s it. Nothing scientific, nothing else at all really, just images of how the Egyptians portrayed their gods. This was quite ridiculous for my ears to hear given the very simple explanations, often provided by the Egyptians themselves and/or other ancient writers, for why their gods were portrayed with specific attributes of certain animals.
Egyptian priest- Chaeremon of Alexandria (1st cen. CE):

We had Chaeremon as a witness that the Egyptians believed in nothing prior to the visible world nor in any other gods than the planets and the other stars, and that they interpreted all things as referring to the visible parts of the world and nothing in reference to incorporeal and living beings. … Chaeremon and most of the others believed in nothing else prior to the visible worlds and gave the Egyptians pride of place, for these interpreted all things as referring to the physical world and nothing in reference to incorporeal and living beings.

Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica 3.9, 13[1]

 

Chaeremon and the others do not believe in anything prior to the visible worlds, stating that the basic principles are the gods of the Egyptians … they interpret everything as referring to physical things and nothing reference to incorporeal or living beings.

Porphyry, Epistula ad Anebonem 2.12-13[2]

 

Thus the imagery used by Egyptians to portray their gods was symbolic of the physical forces which those gods embodied & governed. For example, the physical forces of death, putrefaction, and mummification were embodied in the chthonic god known as Anubis, who is most commonly portrayed with the body of a human male and the head of a canine, in particular a jackal.

Fig. 1: Bronze statuette from Karnak of Anubis being worshiped, 747-525 BCE.

Anubis receiving worship; bronze statuette from Karnak, ca. 747-525 BCE.

Given that jackals are scavengers who feast on carrion, they were often seen handling dead bodies, and prowling around in cemeteries attempting to dig up graves.[3]

Side-striped-jackal-feeding 2

Jackals handling dead bodies.

The jackal god Anubis handling dead bodies, from the tomb of Siptah, KV47, 12th century BCE.

As a fellow scavenger, the jackal can often be seen flanked by vultures while they all preside over dead bodies. Hence images of Anubis can likewise be found flanked by vultures as they all preside over the dead; from the Book of the Dead of the priest Ahamer.

Similarly, jackals often bury corpses in the earth to serve as a food cache for later.

Anubis places a corpse in its coffin and buries it in the earth, just as the jackal buries corpses in the earth as well.

Anubis places a corpse in its coffin and buries it in the earth, just as the jackal buries corpses in the earth as well.

As such, jackals naturally became associated with death itself, and with the the burial of dead bodies down into the earth or in the “underworld.” This is quite reminiscent of another chthonic chimera canine- the Cerberus hound of Greek mythology, with whom Anubis was identified in antiquity.[4] And since jackals consume corpses, thereby removing their presence, jackals were regarded as having sanitized the land and cleansed it of the putrid rot & decay of death, which is the very same effect the practice of mummification has. Hence it is only logical a god of death & putrefaction, Anubis, would be assigned the jackal as his mascot or totem animal, so to speak, and likewise is it logical that a jackal headed god of death would be also be deemed the god of mummification as well so that through that practice he may keep the land sanitized from the decay of death just as the jackal does.

Anubis cleanses a corpse of its decay; from the tomb of Inherkhau, TT359, 12th century BCE.

Anubis cleanses a corpse of its decay (via mummification); from the tomb of Inherkhau, TT359, 12th century BCE.

The jackal has completely cleansed a corpse of its decay.

The jackal has completely cleansed a corpse of its decay.

The jackal cleanses a corpse of its putrefaction with its spittle, just as Anubis was said to do.

The jackal cleanses a corpse from putrefaction with its spittle, just as Anubis was said to do.

Anubis! Lick from your tongue to your heart, and vice versa, as far as the edges of the wound! Lick from the edges of the wound up to the limits of your strength! What you will lick up, you should swallow it. Do not spit it out on the ground, for your tongue is the tongue of Fate.

London-Leiden Papyrus, col. 20, II.10-13[5]

Similarly, the son of Horus known as Duamutef had a chthonic role which involved preserving & protecting the organs of mummified corpses[6], and he too is portrayed with the head of a jackal.

Duamutef houses the organs of a dead body within his belly, just as the jackal does when it consumes carrion; canopic jar from Thebes, 1069-664 BCE.

Duamutef houses the organs of a dead body within his belly, just as the jackal does when it consumes carrion; canopic jar from Thebes, 1069-664 BCE.

The portrayal of Anubis & Duamutef with canine features was intended to reflect these qualities about them, rather than as some alleged documentation of their status as a werewolves or some genetic hybridization experiment performed by space aliens, etc.

Moving on, another chthonic deity often portrayed with theriomorphic features is Osiris. The most common of these is his bovine form, known as Apis.[7] In this form Osiris is usually portrayed with the horns of a bull or even the entire head of a bull like a minotaur. To what did the ancient Egyptians themselves as well as their neighboring nations attribute as the reason for this appearance of Osiris? Was it cross-breeding performed by “gods” (i.e. extraterrestrials) from “heaven” (i.e. outer space)? Nope. The texts of ancient Egypt & Greece etc. chalk it up to the ever recurring motif of using horns, especially those of bovine, as a symbol of the moon[8]- for Osiris was one of the major lunar gods of Egypt.

The moon is compared to a bull on account of the similarity in shape of the crescent moon and a bull’s horns. Lunar gods may be characterized as “with sharp horns.” In texts from the Ptolemaic period in Edfu and Karnak, this metaphor is developed in calling the crescent moon the “rutting bull” and the waning moon the “ox.” … At an uncertain time, the murder of the god an his resurrection were recognized in the lunar cycle, and the body of Osiris was equated with the moon.

Dr. Olaf E. Kaper, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Vol. 2[9]

 

Raise yourself, Osiris the King, you first-born son of Geb, at whom the Great Ennead tremble! May you be pure at the monthly festival, may you manifest at the New Moon, may the three–day festival be celebrated for you.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 483 § 1012 (24th cen. BCE)[10]

 

Hi, Osiris. … Thou dawnest as the Moon.

Book of the Dead, Spell 162 variant S 2[11]

 

August Mummy, Osiris … Raise thyself, Moon that circles the Two Lands.

Book of the Dead, Spell Pleyte 168 S 52, 54[12]

 

The whole of Egypt (calls thee) Osiris, celestial horn of the moon.

Phrygian Hymn to Attis (1st cen. CE[13]) [14]

 

At the time of the new moon in the month of Phamenoth they celebrate a festival to which they give the name of “Osiris’s coming to the Moon,” and this marks the beginning of the spring. Thus they make the power of Osiris to be fixed in the Moon.

Plutarch, Moralia 368B[15]

 

“Osiris is identified unambiguously with the moon in the third and southernmost panel from the ceiling of the main hall at Dendera. He is joined in a celestial boat by the goddesses Isis and Nephthys, and the boat is sailing upon a symbol for the sky, itself supported by four goddesses. The accompanying texts say that Osiris has stepped into the full moon and that he is the moon.”- Dr. Edwin C. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies: The Astronomy of Lost Civilizations[_]

“Osiris is identified unambiguously with the moon in the third and southernmost panel from the ceiling of the main hall at Dendera. He is joined in a celestial boat by the goddesses Isis and Nephthys, and the boat is sailing upon a symbol for the sky, itself supported by four goddesses. The accompanying texts say that Osiris has stepped into the full moon and that he is the moon.”- Dr. Edwin C. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies: The Astronomy of Lost Civilizations[16]

.

Osiris dons the crown of the moon in his role as a lunar god; based on a relief from the temple of Seti I at Abydos.

 

In a passage from a hymn to Osiris, where the god is conceived as the moon (Louvre 3079), it is said “as the moon, oh young bull in heaven every day.”

Dr. Jan Zandee, in Mededelingen en verhandelingen van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap Ex Oriente Lux, XV[17]

 

O Osiris, foremost in the West, raise yourself up … May you enter the sound eye, uniting with it, and your hue cast illumination upon the earth at night. May you become the moon, the bull which rejuvenates itself in the sky every day.

Ceremony of Glorifying Osiris in the God’s Domain, Papyrus BM 10208[18]

 

To the moon they dedicated a bull which they call Apis.

Porphyry, De cultu simulacrorum Fr. 10[19]

 

Most of the priests say that Osiris and Apis are conjoined into one.

Plutarch, Moralia 362D[20]

 

It contains temples, one of which is that of Apis, who is the same as Osiris.

Strabo, Geography XVII, 1.31 (1st cen. BCE-CE)[21]

 

Osiris-Apis, Foremost of the West, the (great) god.

Third Serapeum Votive Stela of Padiese, Louvre Stela IM 3736, Label for Apis[22]

 

Hail to thee, Osiris, bull of the west.

Book of the Dead, Spell 185H S[23]

 

And so when you see Osiris in his bovine form of Apis, as he is in the images below, know that it is in order to utilize the crescent horns of the bull as a symbol of the crescent moon since Osiris is a lunar god.

https://mythodoxy.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/osiris-as-apis.png

Osiris in his form of Apis, donning the disc of the dark moon between his horns which represent the illuminated crescent.

Another aspect of the moon noted by ancient peoples was its correlation to botanical/agricultural cycles.

The Egyptians understood that a relationship existed between the Moon and the growth of plants and that sowing was best done at the time of the full moon.

Dr. Olaf E. Kaper, “Lunar Cycle,” in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Vol. 2 [24]

 

By Osiris [is meant] the lunar world; they reason that the moon, because it has a light that is generative and productive of moisture, is kindly towards the young of animals and the burgeoning plants … Osiris is being buried at the time when the grain is sown and covered in the earth and that he comes to life and reappears when plants begin to sprout.

Plutarch, Moralia 367D, 377B[25]

 

Grain increases in bulk when the moon is waxing.

Pliny the Elder, Natural History 18.308[26]

 

The reeds, they say, from which the fruit for their nourishment is derived, being a span in thickness increase at the times of full-moon and again decrease proportionately as it wanes.

Diodorus of Sicily, Library of History 2.59.8[27]

 

The rosy-fingered moon after  sunset, surpassing all the stars, and its light spreads alike over the salt sea and the flowery fields; the dew is shed in beauty, and roses bloom and tender chervil and flowery melilot.

Sappho, Fr. 96 [28]

 

I live and I die, I am Osiris … I live and I die, for I am emmer.

Coffin Texts, Spell 330 IV, 168-6[29]

 

Osiris pre-eminent in goodly grain, Osiris the lord of grain.

Book of the Dead, Spell 142 S 2[30]

 

When grain grows, Osiris emerges. … The grain rations are growing in the fields of the Netherworld, when Re shines upon the limbs of Osiris.[31] When you arise, green plants come into being.

Book of Gates, Hour 7, 3rd Register[32]

Such being the case, it comes as no surprise that Osiris was commonly depicted as the same color of those “green plants” he brought into being, emphasizing the botanical aspect of his role as a lunar god.

Osiris’ iconic green skin he is most commonly seen in, symbolizing his connection to the crop cycles; from the tomb of Tutankhamun.

 

Grain grows from the body of Osiris; relief from Karnak, c.1450 BCE.

Grain grows from the body of Osiris; from a limestone relief at Karnak, c.1450 BCE.

 

From the Jumilhac Papyrus of the Louvre Museum.

From the Jumilhac Papyrus of the Louvre Museum.

 

From the coffin of Nespawershepi.

 

On the left is a traditional “Osiris bed” from Thebes, 6th century BCE, for growing sacramental grain used to make bread from Osiris’ broken body. 😉 [33] To the right is a replication of that process, resulting in a green “Osiris.”


So now whenever you witness conspiracy theorists citing Osiris’ green skin as evidence that he was a reptoid alien from the Orion star system, you know what to tell them.

Now, threshing that harvested grain in the mills was a burden often placed upon donkeys, who trampled that grain beneath their hooves.

From the tomb of Panehesy at Thebes.

From the tomb of Panehesy at Thebes.

With Osiris being connected to the grain, guess which animal was connected to Osiris’ archenemy, his treacherous brother Seth/Typhon?[34]

The Egyptian god Seth, brother and antagonist of Osiris, seen here with his iconic ass's head; granite statue from the temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu.

The Egyptian god Seth, brother and antagonist of Osiris, seen here with his iconic ass’s head; granite statue from the temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu.

 

Lector: It happened that Osiris in the form of barley was laid upon the threshing floor in Letopolis. Male animals, the followers of Seth in the form of cows and donkeys were brought to strike Osiris (thresh the barley) so that they may be sacrificed. Horus is the one who avenges his father.

Horus speaks to the followers of Seth (in the form of bulls and donkeys): “O followers of Seth, do not trample this my father.”

The Seth animals continue trampling the Osiris-­Barley, cutting him into several pieces.

Horus speaks to the followers of Seth: “Do not strike my father!”

The Seth-­animals continue to trample the Barley-­Osiris. Horus attacks and binds them.

Horus speaks to Osiris: “Seth’s poisonous spit shall not splash upon you.”

Seth, the donkey, stands next to Osiris-­Barley.

Lector: Osiris ascends to the heavens.

The grain is gathered up and placed on the Seth-­donkey.

The Dramatic Ramesseum Papyrus[35]

So coming from the same family as Osiris and Duamutef, like them, Seth is no alien or mutant hybrid and his theriomorphic forms are symbols of his role in Egyptian myths about nature and crops cycles.

And speaking of that family, we come now to Seth’s nephew, the son of Osiris & father of Duamutef- Horus. Arguably the most recognizable character from ancient Egyptian culture, Horus bears the quintessential falcon head. He is portrayed as such because he is a sun god, the earliest known sun god of ancient Egypt, in fact.[36] Since falcons were the strongest birds of that area, they flew to the greatest heights and thus were literally closer to the sun than any other creature and traversed across the sky like the sun itself.[37] Hence his name, Horus (Heru), meaning “the distant one,”[38] an appropriate epithet for the falcon and the sun, both of which are far away up in the heavens, and both of which Horus dons upon his shoulders.

The solar god Horus traverses the sky with the sun crowning his head, similar to the falcon, whose face he bears.

The solar god Horus traverses the sky with the sun crowning his head, similar to the falcon, whose face he bears.

In the words of the Egyptian priest Horapollo:

A god, because the hawk is fecund or long-lived. And again, since it seems to exist as a symbol of the sun, beyond all other birds in sharpness of its sight, because of the rays of its eyes. And for this reason the physicians use hawkweed for eye-trouble. And since the sun is the lord of sight, they draw him sometimes in the shape of a hawk. And sublime things, since the other birds, when they wish to fly upwards, proceed on a slant, it being impossible for them to rise directly. Only the hawk flies straight upwards.

Hieroglyphica 1.6[39]

So you can forget about the Stargate films (which, remember, are works of fiction and not documentaries). The falcon head of Horus has nothing to do with extraterrestrial military technology.

Speaking of birds…

…and again keeping it within the family, the fact that Horus has an avian form is to be expected considering the same is the case for his mother Isis. Most commonly this is seen in her image as a human female with large feathered wings. She also often takes the form of a kite.

Isis, always identifiable by her trademark throne-shaped crown, is seen here with her bird wings outstretched; from the tomb of Seti I, KV17, 14th cen. BCE.

Relief from Philae.

Isis in the form of a kite, from the Papyrus of Ani, 13th cen. BCE.

Isis in the form of a kite, from the Papyrus of Ani, 13th cen. BCE.

Birds flap their wings to generate wind and allow them to fly upon the air. Such being the case, her avian features were believed to give Isis the ability to summon divine winds.

Blessed Isis, who saved her brother, who sought him unwearingly, who went about this land as a HAyt-bird, not alighting before she found him; who made shade with her plumage, who created breeze with her wings.

Book of the Dead, Spell 185A S 3[40]

 

Hail to you, Lady of offerings ‹at› whom Osiris rejoices when he sees her, whose great wall is an owner of possessions; who brings air.

Coffin Texts, Spell 241 III, 324[41]

 

I am mistress of the winds in the Island of Joy. … I am Isis.

Coffin Texts, Spell 332 IV, 177[42]

 

[Isis] herself in turn emits and disseminates into the air generative principles.

Plutarch, Moralia 368D[43]

Wind animates. It causes things to move, be it the leaves of a tree or the waves of the waters. It enters into the lungs of animals and gives them the breath of life. As such, Isis’ ability to summon the wind with her bird wings was crucial to restoring the breath of life to the lungs of her husband Osiris and thus bring about his bodily resurrection from the dead.

Isis has come so that she may cause air to go forth, for she wants it to enter into the holes which are in your head, so that you may live and speak to her.

Coffin Texts, Spell 777 VI, 410[44]

 

In one of the texts quoted, Isis says of Osiris: ‘I gave wind to his nose, so that he should live.’ In this instance Isis is thought of as winged … the wings serve in the text concerned to fan to Osiris the fresh air which revives him.

Dr. Claas J. Bleeker, in The Saviour God: Comparative Studies in the Concept of Salvation[45]

Isis and her twin sister Nephthys fan their wings at Osiris to generate wind to blow into his lungs and restore his body to life; wall painting from the temple of Dendera.

Isis and her twin sister Nephthys fan their wings at Osiris to generate wind to blow into his lungs and restore his body to life; wall painting from the temple of Dendera.

 

Isis in the form of a kite fans air into Osiris while bearing the ankh & shen ring, the symbols of life & eternity, thus resurrecting Osiris to eternal life.

Isis in the form of a kite fans air into Osiris while bearing the ankh & shen ring, the symbols of life & eternity, thus resurrecting Osiris to eternal life.

Now, why was it that Isis had these features to fill this role specifically? Was she an angel or ET? Do recall how Osiris is god of the moon during the springtime season, when the northern hemisphere moves out of winter and begins to warm up and allow for greater vegetative growth. Also recall how the moon’s waxing & waning cycles correlated with the growth rate of vegetation, especially grain, and thus Osiris was given a botanical aspect as well. The state of his own life force was believed to correlate with the life forces of the moon, the spring season, the Nile river, and the grain/vegetation. All of this in turn correlated with the descent of the Etesian winds from the north. Again, it is wind which animates, it restores life to the Nile waters and the grain crops of Egypt, just as Isis’ winds generated by her wings restored life to the grain god Osiris. And what was it the Egyptians believed brought about this summoning of the life-giving Etesian winds? The heliacal rising of the star Sirius, which they referred to as Sothis.[46]

According to Eudoxus Sirius rises in the morning, and for the next fifty-five days the Etesian winds blow.

Parapegma of Geminus of Rhodes[47]

 

The etesian winds are annually recurring (hence their name) north winds that blow in the Mediterranean in the summer, giving some relief from the heat. Aristotle (Meteorology 361b36-262a2) says that the etesian winds blow after the summer solstice and the rising of the Dog star, and that they blow in the daytime but fall off at night.

Dr. James Evans and Dr. J. Lennart Berggren, Geminos’s Introduction to the Phenomena: A Translation and Study of a Hellenistic Survey of Astronomy[48]

 

Aratus includes some astrometeorological information, such as that the Etesian winds begin just after the rising of Sirius.

Dr. Daryn Lehoux, Astronomy, Weather, and Calendars in the Ancient World: Parapegmata and Related Texts in Classical and Near-Eastern Societies[49]

And just as Osiris was spring-time god of the heavenly body known as the moon which summoned the grain, the deity presiding over the heavenly body known as Sirius which summoned the north winds of spring was none other than… his wife Isis.[50]

Invoke Isis, [the one who] creates prosperity after [poverty(?)] who brings the good north wind in order to create the dew.

Papyrus Tebtunis, x + 1-3[51]

 

Who creates the dew and lets grow the dj-plants … Sothis, lady of the beginning of the year, good north wind.

Temple of Dendera, Text II 15, 17-16[52]

 

These winds have been given to me by these maidens. Such is the north-wind which circulates about the Isles, which opens its arms to the limits of the earth and which rests when it has brought the things which I daily desire. The north-wind is the breath of life.

Coffin Texts, Spell 162 II, 389[53]

 

To be said by Isis: … I have wafted breath to thy nose, the north wind that came forth from Atum.

Book of the Dead, Spell 151 b P-S 2[54]

 

Brought to him is barley by the north wind, brought to him is wheat which the earth brings to fruition.

Book of the Dead, Spell 152 a S [55]

 

[Isis] herself in turn emits and disseminates into the air generative principles.

Plutarch, Moralia 368D[56]

 

Hail to thee, Osiris, lord of eternity, king of the gods … (god) for whom the north wind blows upstream, at whose nose the night wind is born, until his heart is contented; at whose will plants grow, for whom the inundation season bears her produce. … What the disk has circled is under his supervision: the north wind, the Nile, the flood, the plants (that constitute) the staff of life, all that the Grain-God renews.

Book of the Dead, Spell 185A S 1, 4[57]

 

Her birds features have nothing to do with angels or aliens. The only thing extraterrestrial about it is the association with the star Sirius.

While on the topic of birds and generative winds, there was a belief in ancient Egypt that vultures were unisex. Specifically, they were all exclusively female, no male vultures existed at all per this belief. They all were said to reproduce parthenogenetically, i.e. vultures in ancient Egypt were thought to come into being by virgin birth. 😉

I am the noble vulture of the male brother, the lord of Thebes, i.e. the noble vulture of which no male exists.

Leiden Papyrus I 384 ro IX, 7-8[58]

 

They say, too, that among vultures there are only females, which become parents alone.

Tertullian of Carthage, Adversus Valentinianos 4.10[59]

 

He wished, also with others and even with men themselves. Among the animals there are certain females that have no intercourse with the male, as writers on animals say of vultures; this creature preserves the continuation of the species without any copulation. Why, therefore, is it incredible that if God wished to send some divine teacher to mankind He should have made the organism of him that was to be born come into being in a different way instead of using generative principle derived from sexual intercourse of men and women? Moreover, according to the Greeks themselves not all men were born from a man and a woman.

Origen Adamantius, Contra Celsum 1.37[60]

 

Many kinds of birds do not need the union with the males for conception; but, in other kinds, eggs produced without copulation are sterile. It is said that the vultures hatch without coition a very great number of young, and this, although they are especially long-lived; in fact, their life generally continues for a hundred years. Consider this as my special observation from the history of the birds, in order that if ever you see any persons laughing at our mystery, as though it were impossible and contrary to nature for a virgin to give birth while her virginity itself was preserved immaculate, you may consider that God, who is pleased to save the faithful by the foolishness of our preaching, first set forth innumerable reasons from nature for our beliefs in His wonders.

Basil of Caesarea, Exegetic Homilies, Homily 8 § 6[61]

 

Ideas that there were only female vultures and that they were virgin born, without a male begetter, thus appears to come from Egypt.

Dr. Herman Te Velde, in Servant of Mut: Studies in Honor of Richard A. Fazzini[62]

The mechanism through which they achieved was, yet again, through the wind.

The Egyptians fable the whole species [of vultures] is female, and they conceive by receiving the breath of the East Wind, even as the trees do by receiving the West Wind.

Plutarch, Moralia 286C[63]

 

It is said that no male vulture is ever born: all vultures are female. And the birds knowing this and fearing to be left childless, take measures to produce them as follows. They fly against the south wind. If however the wind is not from the south, they open their beaks to the east wind, and the inrush of air impregnates them, and their period of gestation lasts for three years.

Aelian, On the Characteristics of Animals 2.46[64]

 

When they mean a mother … they draw a vulture. A mother, since there is no male in this species of animal. And they are born this way: when the vulture hungers after conception, she opens her sexual organ to the North Wind and is covered by him for five days. During this period she takes neither food nor drink, yearning for child-bearing. But there is another species of vulture which conceives by the wind, the eggs of which serve only for food and are not for hatching. But when vultures are impregnated by the wind, their eggs are fertile.

Horapollo, Hieroglyphica 1.11[65]

This is not without its precedent in reality, however, for there does exist a scientifically verified[66] phenomenon among virgin birds which the ancient Greeks referred to as hupenemia, or “wind eggs” as we say it today.

 

In those animals where generation takes place from animals of the same kind, where there are the two sexes, generation is the result of copulation; in the group of fishes, however, there are some which are no male and female; they are identical generically with other fishes, but differ from them specifically; others again are entirely peculiar to themselves. There are yet others which are female and have no male: these produce eggs just as birds produce wind-eggs.
When female partridges stand to leeward of the males, they become impregnated; they often do so too when they hear the voice of the male, if they are on heat, or when the male flies over them and breathes down on them. …
Some people allege that wind-eggs are the remains of eggs previously produced by copulation. They are wrong, because we have sufficient observations to establish that chickens of the domestic fowl and of geese lay wind-eggs though they have never copulated. Wind-eggs are smaller in size than fertile ones … Wind-eggs are produced by many kinds of birds, e.g., domestic hens, partridges, pigeons, peahen, geese, vulpansers.

Aristotle, History of Animals 5.538-40, 6.559-60 (4th cen. BCE)[67]

 

Certain mares on Mount Tagrus, at a particular time of year, are impregnated by the wind; just as in this country frequently occurs in the case of those hens the eggs of which are called hypenemia.

Varro, On Agriculture, 2.1.19 (1st. cen. BCE)[68]

 

They snuff the light airs and often without being mated
Conceive, for the wind—astounding to tell—impregnates them.

Virgil, Georgics 3.274-75 (1st cen. BCE)[69]

 

In the absence of a cock … wind-eggs are conceived by the hen birds mating together in a pretence of sexual intercourse, or else from dust, and not only by hen pigeons but also by farmyard hens, partridges, peahens, geese and ducks. But these eggs are sterile, and of smaller size and less agreeable flavor, and more watery. Some people think they are actually generated by the wind, for which reason they are also called Zephyr’s eggs.

Pliny, Natural History 10.79.166, 29.9.52 (1st cen. CE)[70]

Being aware of these facts, it is quite apparent why the primary Egyptian deity of motherhood, Mut, was portrayed with the wings & headdress of a vulture, and even her very name is written with the symbol of a vulture, and it had nothing to do with aliens. Rather, it was because there was no purer embodiment of motherhood than a species (allegedly) composed of nothing else but mothers alone.

The Egyptian goddess of motherhood, Mut, seen here with the wings of a vulture, the mascot of virgin motherhood; cartonage panel, 6th-1st century BCE.

 

Amulet from the Nile Delta, 16th-11th cen. BCE, portraying Mut in the form of a vulture.

Amulet from the Nile Delta, 16th-11th cen. BCE, portraying Mut in the form of a vulture.

 

Another animal believed to be virgin born & unisex in ancient Egypt was the scarab beetle. The were never observed mating, but they were observed to roll dung into balls, and then later their newborn offspring would emerge from those balls, thus appearing to have been produced parthenogenetically.

There is no such thing as a female beetle, but all beetles are male. They eject their sperm into a round mass which they construct.

Plutarch, Moralia 355B[71]

 

To signify the only begotten, or birth, or a father, or the world, or man, they draw a scarab. the only begotten, because this animal is self-begotten, unborn of the female. For its birth takes place only in the following way. When the male wishes to have offspring, it takes some cow-dung and makes a round ball of it, very much in the shape of the world is borne from the east to west. Then, burying this ball, it leaves it in the ground for twenty-eight days, during which time the moon traverses the twelve signs of the zodiac. Remaining here, the beetle is brought to birth. And on the tenty-ninth day, when it breaks the ball open, it rolls it into the water. For it considers this day to be the conunction of the moon and the sun, as well as the birth of the world. When it is opened in the water, animals emerge which are beetles. It symbolizes birth for this very reason. And a father, because the beetle takes its birth from a father only.

Horapollo, Hieroglyphica 1.11[72]

 

Another reason the scarab was held in special regard is that the ancient Egyptians believed that the beetle had offspring without the union of male and female. This false belief arose simply because the Egyptians never saw them copulating.

Dr. Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic[73]

To the Egyptians this scarab’s ball shape and direction of travel resembled the sun, and its perceived power to give life to the scarab resembled the sun’s power to give life to the creatures of the earth. Likewise, the scarab’s alleged virgin birth resembled the virgin birth of the chief sun god from the primordial goddess Neith.[74] Hence the scarab became a mascot for the sun, in particular, when it was “reborn” again at the dawn of each sun rise, and during those morning hours the chief sun god, Re, was portrayed in the form of a scarab-headed man known Re-Khepri.[75]

Khepri is the sun-god at dawn on the eastern horizon. His iconography is that of a scarab beetle (of which there are numerous varieties in Egypt) pushing the disk of the sun upwards from the Underworld to journey across the sky. In their own local environment the Egyptians would have noticed the scarabs busily rolling balls of dirt across the ground and translated this method of propulsion into an explanation of the sun’s circuit. However, the analogy did not stop there. Observing that out of the ball emerged a scarab, apparently spontaneously, it was logical to see the insect as Khepri – ‘he is coming into being’, i.e. self-created of his own accord without undergoing the natural cycle of reproduction. The creator sun-god was therefore aptly manifest in the ‘scarabaeus sacer’ or dung beetle.

Dr. George Hart, The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses [76]

 

Re-Khepri, the scarab headed god of the rising sun; from the tomb of Nefertari, QV66, 13th cen. BCE.

Re-Khepri, the scarab headed god of the rising sun; from the tomb of Nefertari, QV66, 13th cen. BCE.

Re-Khepri in full scarab form, flanked by Isis & Nephthys, rolls the ball of the sun across the eastern horizon just as the scarab beetle rolls its ball here on earth.

Re-Khepri in full scarab form, flanked by Isis & Nephthys, rolls the ball of the sun across the eastern horizon just as the scarab beetle rolls its ball here on earth.

 

The

The “virgin” birth of the scarab beetle from its dung ball, analogous to the virgin birth of the sun god from Neith.

The scarabs did in fact use the path of the sun to guide the direction of their ball as they rolled it, further provoking an association with the sun god. Likewise, during the night hours they rolled their balls along the same direction as the Milky Way in the sky[77], which was personified in the Egyptian pantheon as the sky goddess Nut. The visible portion of the Milky Way across the year resembles a silhouette of a woman arching her back, the traditional form in which Nut was portrayed[78], and thus the sun’s annual journey across the Milky Way was portrayed as Re-Khepri rolling the solar disc across the body of Nut.
dung-bettle

Re-Khepri rolls the sun ball along the starry body of the sky goddess Nut, just as the scarab rolls its ball parallel to the starry body of the Milky Way; from the tomb of Rameses VI, KV9, 12th cen. BCE.

Re-Khepri rolls the sun ball along the starry body of the sky goddess Nut, just as the scarab rolls its ball parallel to the starry body of the Milky Way; from the tomb of Rameses VI, KV9, 12th cen. BCE.

No insectoid aliens necessary to explain the presence of this god. The Egyptians yet again pulled the idea from their natural terrestrial environment. Such was the case not only for Re himself, but also for his children, such as his daughter[79] Bastet. She was most often portrayed with the head of a cat. As a daughter of the sun god, this choice of form is rather fitting given the properties of feline eyes in relation to the sun’s light.

They say the male cat changes its pupils with the course of the sun. For they widen out towards morning at the rising of the god. And they become round like a ball at noon, and they appear somewhat faint as the sun is about to set.

Horapollo, Hieroglyphica 1.10[80]

This appears to have been the rationale behind giving Bastet the epithet “Lady of Bubastis, the eye of Re.”[81]

Bronze statue of Bastet (10th cen. BCE), the cat goddess of Bubastis, hold in her left hand the eye of her father Re, i.e. the sun disc.

Bronze statue of Bastet (10th cen. BCE), the cat goddess of Bubastis. She holds in her left hand the eye of her father Re, i.e. the sun disc.

 

Bastet wears on her neck an amulet of the eye of Re; bronze statue from Saqqara, 7th cen. BCE.

Bastet wears on her neck an amulet of the eye of Re; bronze statue from Saqqara, 7th cen. BCE.

Sorry Thundercats fans, Thundera must remain in the realm of pure fantasy for now.

In keeping with the theme of the sun, the Egyptians often portrayed the sun, and the moon, as being heralded & worshiped by baboons.

1773296134_ed03f3be3f fc983fb7898ef9bfb211ee8f31a5c007

This is because some baboons actually will herald the sun by howling & barking in jubilation as the sun rises at dawn.[82]

Wild baboons do stretch and chatter when waking up and moving off at first light. this was interpreted as signing and dancing for the sun god Ra, so baboons were thought to be the first creatures to pay proper religious observances.

Dr. Geraldine Pinch, Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt[83]

baboons

Baboons barking in jubilation at the rising sun.

Along with heralding the sun’s rising, baboons were also believed to display behavior that heralded the sun’s conjunction with the moon, as well as herald the sun’s equinoxes in the spring and autumn.

When the moon, moving into conjunction with the sun, is darkened, then the male baboon does not look nor does he eat; but he is bowed down to the earth in grief, as if lamenting for the rape of the moon. And the female does not look either and suffers the same things as the male, and bleeds from her genitals. For this reason up to now baboons have been fed in the temples, in order that from them can be known the time of the conjunction of the sun and moon.  …

Again, when they symbolize the two equinoxes, they draw the baboon, but seated. For in the two equinoxes of the year, it voids urine twelve times a day, once an hour. And it does the same thing during the two nights. Wherefore it is not illogical that on their water-clocks the Egyptians carve a seated baboon. And they make water drip from its penis, since, as has been said above, it indicates the twelve hours of the equinox. In order that the water may not be too copious…a contrivance exists [to regulate it]. Through this the water is let into the clock, not too fine a stream, for there is need of both [fine and broad]. The broader makes the water flow swiftly and does not measure off the hours properly. And the thinner stream gives a flow which is too small and slow. [Hence] they arrange to loosen the duct by a hair’s breadth and they prepare an iron plug for this use, according to the thickness of the stream [required]. It is not without reason that they are pleased to do this, as they do other things, but also during the equinoxes the baboon, alone of all beasts, cries out each hour, twelve times a day.

Horapollo, Hieroglyphica 1.14-16[84]

 

Egyptian water clock, 4th century BCE, portraying a baboon urinating on the hour just as described by Horapollo.

Egyptian water clock, 4th century BCE, portraying a baboon urinating on the hour just as described by Horapollo.

Such being the case, the baboon was quite literally regarded as the time keeper in ancient Egypt, and was also regarded as a messenger of the sun god, signaling to the world the coming of his rising, his hours, his lunar conjunctions, and his equinoxes. Somewhat related to that role of messenger was the fact baboons were known to have (albeit very primitive) word recognition skills, something recently scientifically verified by researchers here in our own time.

Here in Egypt a race of baboons exists who know their letters, in accordance with which, when a baboon was first cared for in a temple, the priest handed him a tablet and pen and ink. This was to attempt to find out whether he was of the race which knew its letters and whether he could write. Moreover, the animal is sacred to Hermes, the god of letters.

Horapollo, Hieroglyphica 1.14[85]

 

Under the Ptolemies the Egyptians taught baboons their letters.

Aelian, On the Characteristics of Animals 6.10[86]

So the baboon was regarded as a time keeper, a divine messenger, and a scribe. Wouldn’t you know it, these were all roles of the god Thoth, the Egyptian counterpart to the aforementioned Hermes.

Thoth, another form of the moon, in combination with his identity of scribe, was the regulator or measurer of time and seasons. His records and computations set the days for the festivals.

Dr. Edwin C. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies: The Astronomy of Lost Civilizations [87]

 

Thoth: god of magic, divine intelligence, wisdom, learning, inventor of writing, measurer of time, keeper of divine records.

Dr. Bojana Mojsov, Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God [88]

And wouldn’t you know it, Thoth was often portrayed with the head of… a baboon.

Statue of Thoth, 13th cen. BCE, the baboon-headed scribal god of ancient Egypt, herald of the sun god.

Statue of Thoth, 13th cen. BCE, the baboon-headed scribal god of ancient Egypt, herald of the sun god.

Sasquatch? Nah. Missing link? Nope. Alien-primate hybrid ancestor of humankind? Hardly, regardless of where you read it or how many degrees the author has. Just a plain ol’ baboon anthropomorphized.

And finally, we come to the internet’s favorite ancient alien species- the reptoids.

ReptilianAgenda

As can be expected, the staple example reptoid fans like to rush to as evidence of reptoids and shape-shifting hybrids in ancient Egypt are the crocodile gods such as Sobek & Wenti.

Bronze statue of the crocodilian god Sobek, “Lord of the Waterways,” 7th-4th cen. BCE.

 

The crocodile bears the sun upon its head as the two of them traverse the waters of the Netherworld.

While there are magical spells in literature like the coffin texts which claim to allow a human to shape-shift into a crocodile god, these spells were stated to be for the purpose of allowing the target of the spell (usually the deceased person in whose coffin & tomb these spells were engraved) to navigate the waters of the Netherworld. After all, for the ancient Egyptians, what aquatic life form was more powerful and commanded more respect than the crocodile?

BECOMING SOBK, LORD OF THE WINDING WATERWAY. N is the fnt-snake which IV, I issued from the shank and ate the Chaos-god, whom Seth exhaled for him from within the secrets of Geb. N is a shape who eats (even) when he copulates, who lives on . .. , I who makes for himself …  to the full extent of his desire. The … have descended from the sky for him. His are the bulls, Anubis has made horns for him, because N is a great crocodile, and fair is the flood of the lord of the fens, the greatly majestic, the companion of this Great One who traverses swamps and river-banks. N has come from the green fens, he has turned the reeds of the fens and the crocodiles of the fens, N traverses swamps and river-banks; N has come that he may eat his brother with his fish-scales; the god comes, having eaten his brother and lived on his scales. N finds his true brother(?), namely the brother of this Great One, namely this Dep-ite judge who is in the Broad Hall of Abydos. N is a crocodile-spirit, crocodile-faced, dangerous in the reeds of the fens; N has traversed the crossings of the river-banks, for N is a crocodile, lord of the creeks. Djedu has been given to N to nourish him, with Khabet for his nurse; Edjo the Great has acted for him so as to ferry him over to the Fields of Offerings. Acclamation to N and to his double! N is Sobk, lord of creeks.

Coffin Texts, Spell 286 IV, 1[89]

So these type of spells as described here hardly sound like some conspiracy plot for controlling the planet earth or for allowing the Queen of England to shape-shift into a reptoid so she can drink the blood of virgin children sacrificed in Satanic rituals. The Egyptians merely knew that crocodiles were much stronger swimmers than humans and had no natural predators in their habitat, and thus were the most appropriate form for navigating water ways, even in the Netherworld.

As for gods like Sobek & Wenti, much like Thoth or Bast, they were servants of the sun god Re. In particular, they were his guardians and ushers who help transport him through the aquatic parts of the Netherworld. And that makes sense, for the reasons just stated above.

Sobk (Sobek, Sebek)associated with the cult of Ra, Sobk is a servant of the sun god; the Egyptian god of water and of fertility.

Dr. Eleazar M. Meletinky, The Poetics of Myth[90]

 

Went (wntj). Crocodile who bears the Sun through the Duat.

Dr. James P. Allen, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts [91]

But also, again like Thoth and Bast, their totem animal (the crocodile in this case) had a natural affiliation with the sun to the Egyptians.

The writers and travelers of the ancient world, including Plutarch, Pliny, and Aelianus, observed the daily habitats of the crocodile, reporting that it settled itself on an east facing sandbank “with idle feet” when the sun rose, with wide-open “fearsome jaws;” in the afternoon, it turned westward, and in the evening entered the water.

Dr. Emma Brunner-Traut, in The Oxford Dictionary of Ancient Egypt Vol. 1[92]

 

For two or three hours after dawn, Nile crocodiles bask in the sun to replace heat lost from being in the water at night. Usually their jaws are wide open and the lose excess heat through the evaporation of moisture from the mouth. When the sun is overhead, the crocodiles move into the shade or slip back into the water where it is cooler. In the late afternoon, the crocodiles bask for another two or three hours before returning to the water at around dusk. Most of their hunting and feeding is done at night.

Ruth Miller, Animal Kingdom: Reptiles[93]

It appeared as though only the sun himself had the power to soothe the savage beast. Hence the role of crocodile god as servant of the sun god is to be expected.

Now what about the other go-to deities often cited as examples of ancient reptoids- the serpent gods? For example, the primeval chaos deities known as the Ogdoad, are often portrayed as humanoid serpents & frogs.

The serpentine gods of the Ogdoad, as seen in the Temple of Hathor at Dendera.

These eight gods were believed to have manifested out of the muddy morass of the murky primordial abyss.[94] Serpents were likewise believed to have been born from the mud of the earth.

The snake is an offspring of the earth.

Herodotus, Histories 1.78.3[95]

 

Yet the earth in our own time produces creatures complete in themselves and perfect,—mice in Egypt and everywhere snakes and frogs and cicadas.

Senecio, in Plutarch, Moralia 637B[96]

 

O ḥfnw-snake, O ḥfnnt-snake, listen to me, listen to the earth, listen to your father Geb.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 385 § 674-75[97]

 

A snake emerging from the mud of the earth, as snakes are often known to do.

With serpents being born (so it was thought) from the earth itself, the god of the earth itself, Geb, was likewise granted a serpentine form.

The earth god, Geb, reclines beneath his sister Nut, goddess of the sky, while donning the head of a serpent.

Also, unlike us mammals, when a snake sheds its skin it does so in whole, leaving behind what appears to be a complete corpse of itself. Thus snakes give off the illusion of perpetual regeneration and rebirth from death. This is akin to how the earth itself, from which snakes were believed to come into being, was thought to be perpetually regenerated as it went through the cycles of the seasons, shedding its leaves like the snake sheds its skin and emerged anew each spring. Hence the earth god was seen as a serpent, as shown above.

Similarly, the body of the giant chthonic serpent named “Life of the Gods” must be passed through from its tail to its mouth in order to reverse time and regenerate the bodies of the Netherworld gods and of the resurrected deceased.[98] In effect, the deceased emerges reborn from the mouth of a snake just as snakes here on earth emerge “reborn” from their own mouths when they shed their skin.

Twelve servants of Re tow his solar bark through the body of the serpent “Life of the Gods” so that they all may be rejuvenated and maintain eternal life; from the 12th Hour of the Book of Amduat, as seen in the tomb of Thutmose III, KV34, 15th century BCE.

 

A snake being

A snake being “reborn” from the mouth of its old body.

Sorry Jordan Maxwell fans, shape-shifting human-reptoid hybrids from Alpha Draconis are not necessary to explain the serpentine nature of these deities.

Does life exist beyond planet earth? Has such life ever visited earth? Have such aliens interacted with our human ancestors in the remote past?

Such questions are above my pay grade. But I assure you this, the answers to them need not involve dubious appeals to the presence of theriomorphic humanoids in the artwork of ancient Egypt.

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Notes

[1] Pieter Willem Van Der Horst, Chaeremon: Egyptian Priest and Stoic Philosopher (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1984), 15.

[2] Ibid.

[3] George Hart, The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses (New York: Routledge, 1986-2005), 22.

Geraldine Pinch, Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002-04), 104.

Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt (Stroud: The History Press, 1984-2003), 174.

Patricia Remler, Egyptian Mythology: A to Z (New York: Chelsea House, 2000-10), 99.

[4] Diodorus of Sicily, Library of History 1.96.6, in Diodorus Siculus: Library of History, Books 1-2.34, trans. C.H. Oldfather (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1933-67),

Anne Burton, Diodorus Siculus, Book 1: A Commentary (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1972), 276.

[5] Janet H. Johnson, “PDM xiv. 594-620,” in The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, ed. H.D. Betz (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1986), 228.

[6] Hope B. Werness, The Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in Art (New York: The Coninuum International Publishing Group, 2006), 240.

Aiden Dodson, “Four Sons of Horus,” in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt: Vol. 1, ed. D.B. Redford (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 561-63.

[7] Tibullus, Poem I.7.27-28, in Latin Lyric and Elegiac Poetry: An Anthology of New Translations, trans. Rachel Hadas, eds. D.J. Rayor and W.W. Batstone, (New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1995), 41.

Robert K. Ritner, The Libyan Anarchy: Inscriptions From Egypt’s Third Intermediate Period (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2009), 187, 400, 445, 588.

Ian Shaw, Exploring Ancient Egypt (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 21.

Alan B. Lloyd, “Strabo and the Memphite Tauromachy,” in Hommages a Maarten J. Vermaseren, Vol. II, eds. M.B. de Boer and T.A. Edridge (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1978), 618.

John G. Griffiths, “Osiris,” in Lexikon der Ägyptologie:Band IV Megiddo-Pyramiden, eds. W. Helck and W. Westendorf (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz GmbH & Co. KG, 1982), 629.

Jan Assman, The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs, trans. A. Jenkins (New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1996-2002), 374-75.

[8] “O bull-horned Moon, crossing the air as you race with night.”- Orphic Hymn to Selene 2, in The Orphic Hymns, trans. A.N. Athanassakis and B.M. Wolkow (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 2013), 11.

“If, while a north wind blows, the horns of the crescent moon stand out straight, westerly winds will generally succeed.”- Theophrastus of Eresus, On Weather Signs 27 (4th cen. BCE), in Theophrastus: Enquiry Into Plants and Minor Works on Odours and Weather Signs, Volume 2, trans. A. Hort (London: William Heinemann, 1926-80), 409. (Emph. added.)

“Scan first the horns on either side the Moon. For with varying hue from time to time the evening paints her and of different shape are her horns at different times as the Moon is waxing.”- Aratus of Soli, Phaenomena 778-80 (3rd cen. BCE), in Callimachus: Hymns and Epigrams, Lycophron, Aratus, trans. G.R. Mair (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1921-89), 441. (Emph. added.)

“The moon’s horns are always turned away from the sun.”- Pliny the Elder, Natural History 2.11, in Pliny: Natural History, Books 1-2, trans. H. Rackham (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1938-67), 207. (Emph. added.)

[9] Olaf E. Kaper, “Lunar Cycle,” in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Vol. 2 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 481-82.

[10] Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 170.

[11] Thomas G. Allen, The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 158.

[12] Ibid. 219-20.

[13] Hippolytus of Rome, Refutation of All Heresies, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Volume IV, eds. A. Roberts and J. Donaldson, trans. J.H. Macmahon (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1886-1990), 56.

[14] Maria G. Lancellotti, Attis, Between Myth and History: King, Priest, and God (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2002), 117.

Gary Lease, “Jewish Mystery Cults since Goodenough,” Aufstieg Und Niedergang Der Römischen Welt II.20.2, eds. H. Temporini and W. Haase (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1987), 861.

Philippe Borgeaud, Mother of the Gods: From Cybele to the Virgin Mary, trans. L. Hochroth (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 2004), 102.

[15] Plutarch, Moralia 362D, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume V, trans. F.C. Babbitt, (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936-62), 105.

[16] Edwin C. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies: The Astronomy of Lost Civilizations (Mineola: Dover Publications, Inc., 1983-2003), 20.

[17] Jan Zandee, “An ancient Egyptian crossword puzzle: An inscription of Nebwenenef from Thebes,” Mededelingen en verhandelingen van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap Ex Oriente Lux, XV (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1966), 30. (Emph. added.)

[18] Mark J. Smith, On the Primeval Ocean (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2002), 121. (Emph. added.)

[19] Van Der Horst (1984), 33.

[20] Babbitt (1936-62), 71.

[21] Strabo, Geography, in The Geography of Strabo Vol. VII, trans. H.L. Jones (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1932-82), 87.

[22] Ritner (2009), 397.

[23] T.G. Allen (1974), 208.

[24] Kaper (2001), 481-82.

[25] Babbitt (1936-62), 101, 153.

[26] Pliny the Elder, Natural History, in Pliny: Natural History, Books 17-19, trans. H. Rackham (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950-61), 383.

[27] Diodorus of Sicily, Library of History, in Diodorus Siculus: Library of History, Books 2.35-4.58, trans. C.H. Oldfather (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935-67), 81.

[28] Sappho, in Greek Lyric: Sappho, Alcatus, trans. D.A. Campbell (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982), 121.

[29] Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Vol. I (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1973), 254, n.1.

[30] T.G. Allen (1974), 119.

[31] With Re being the sun & Osiris being the moon, this refers to the full moon, when the sun fully shines upon it bringing it to its fullest light, and by extension, bringing the plants to their fullest life.

[32] Erik Hornung and Theodor Abt, The Egyptian Book of Gates (Zurich: Living Human Heritage Publications, 2014), 259-60.

[33] For primary sources & scholarly commentaries, see The Perennial Gospel pp.240-60, 274-87.

[34] John Baines, “Egypt,” in World Mythology, ed. R.G. Willis (New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1993), 45.

John G. Griffiths, The Origins of Osiris and His Cult (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1980), 50-51.

Pinch (2002-04), 179.

[35] Raising the Djed Pillar, The Ramesseum Dramatic Papyrus, trans. S. Tyson Smith http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/faculty/stsmith/courses/Raising of the Djed-Pillar.pdf 4-5

[36] Glenn S. Holland, Religion in the Ancient Mediterranean World (Chantilly: The Teaching Company LLC, 2005), Lecture 7.

[37] http://www.unesco.org/culture/museum-for-dialogue/item/en/75/the-god-horus-in-the-shape-of-a-falcon

[38] Holland (2005), Lecture 7.

[39] Horapollo, Hieroglyphica, in The Hieroglyphics of Horapollos, trans. G. Boas (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950-93), 46.

[40] T.G. Allen (1974), 204. (Emph. added.)

[41] Faulkner (1973), 189. (Emph. added.)

[42] Ibid. 256. (Emph. added.)

[43] Babbitt (1936-62), 105.

[44] Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Vol. II (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1977), 304.

[45] Claas J. Bleeker, “Isis as Saviour Goddess,” in The Saviour God: Comparative Studies in the Concept of Salvation, Presented to Edwin Oliver James, ed. S.G.F. Brandon (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1963), 8.

[46] Hart (1986-2005), 207.

[47] Daryn Lehoux, Astronomy, Weather, and Calendars in the Ancient World: Parapegmata and Related Texts in Classical and Near-Eastern Societies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 73, 233.

[48] James Evans and J. Lennart Berggren, Geminos’s Introduction to the Phenomena: A Translation and Study of a Hellenistic Survey of Astronomy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006), 232 n.5.

[49] Lehoux (2007), 206.

[50] Plutarch, Moralia 366A.

Memphite Hymn to Isis in the Aretology of Kyme § 8-9.

Heidelberg Demotic Paprus 736 verso § 6-7.

Instruction of Papyrus Insinger § 32.3.

Hymn to Isis at the Temple of Aswan.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 593 § 1636.

Book of the Dead, Spell 65 b S 2.

Holger Kockelmann, Praising the Goddess: A Comparative and Annotated Re-Edition of Six Demotic Hymns and Praises to Isis (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, 2008), 62-63.

Reginald E. Witt, Isis in the Ancient World (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971-97), 16.

[51] Smith (2002), 31. (Emph. added.)

[52] Kockelmann (2008), 62-63 n.255.

[53] Faulkner (1973), 140. (Emph. added.)

[54] T.G. Allen (1974), 148. (Emph. added.)

[55] Ibid. 151. (Emph. added.)

[56] Babbitt (1936-62), 105.

[57] T.G. Allen (1974), 203-04. (Emph. added.)

[58] Herman Te Velde, “The Goddess Mut and the Vulture,” in Servant of Mut: Studies in Honor of Richard A. Fazzini, ed. S. D’Auria (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2007), 244.

[59] Tertullian of Carthage, Adversus Valentinianos, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Volume III, eds. A. Roberts and J. Donaldson, trans. A. Roberts (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1885-1994), 509.

[60] Origen Adamantius, Contra Celsum, trans. Henry Chadwick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953-2003), 36. (Emph. added.)

[61] Basil of Caesarea, Exegetic Homilies, trans. A.C. Way (Washington D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, Inc., 1963-2003), 128. (Emph. added.)

[62] Te Velde (2007), 244.

[63] Plutarch, Moralia, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume IV, trans. F.C. Babbitt (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936-99), 141.

[64] Aelian, On the Characteristics of Animals, in Aelian: On Animals, Books 1-5, trans. A.F. Scholfield (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958), 145.

[65] Boas (1950-93), 50.

[66] Thomas W. Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990-2003), 58.

John Ringo, Fundamental Genetics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 210-11.

Seth M. Kisia, Vertebrates: Structures and Functions (Enfield: Science Publishers, 2010), 248-49.

Tim Birkhead, The Wisdom of Birds: An Illustrated History of Ornithology (London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2008-11), 287-89.

[67] Aristotle, History of Animals, in Aristotle: History of Animals, Books 4-6, trans. A.L. Peck (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970-93), 99-101, 111, 227-29. (Emph. added.)

[68] Varro, On Agriculture, in Cato and Varro on Agriculture, trans. W.D. Hooper, H.B. Ash (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1934-93), 325.

[69] Virgil, Georgics, in Virgil: The Eclogues, The Georgics, trans. C.D. Lewis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1940-83), 97.

[70] Pliny the Elder, Natural History, in Pliny: Natural History, Books 8-11, trans. H. Rackham, (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1940-67), 399. (Emph. added.)

[71] Babbitt (1936-62), 29.

[72] Boas (1950-93), 50

[73] Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic (New York: Quill, 1980-2001), 146.

[74] For primary sources & scholarly commentaries, see The Perennial Gospel pp.54-72.

[75] Pyramid Texts, Utterance 606 § 1695.

Papyrus Leiden I 350, ch. 200.

David Klotz, Adoration of the Ram: Five Hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis Temple, Yale Egyptological Studies 6 (New Haven: Yale Egyptological Seminar, 2006), 191.

Robert K. Ritner, “The Legend of Isis and the Name of Re {1.22} (P. Turin 1993),” in The Context of Scripture: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World, Vol. 1, eds. W.W. Halo and K.L. Younger (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1997), 34.

[76] Hart (1986-2005), 84.

[77] Marie Dacke, Emily Baird, Marcus Byrne, Clarke H. Scholtz, Eric J. Warrant, “Dung Beetles Use the Milky Way for Orientation,” Current Biology 23 , no. 4 (2013): 298 – 300.

[78] Ronald A. Wells, “Re and the Calendars,” Revolutions in Time: Studies in Ancient Egyptian Calendrics, ed. A.J. Spalinger (San Antonio: Van Siclen Books, 1994), 1-9.

[79] Robert K. Ritner, The Libyan Anarchy: Inscriptions From Egypt’s Third Intermediate Period (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2009), 248.

[80] Boas (1950-93), 48-49.

[81] Ritner (2009), 239.

[82] J.P. Allen (2005), 67 n.81.

Hart (1986-2005),214.

Remler (2000-10), 26.

[83] Pinch (2002-04), 114.

[84] Boas (1950-93), 52-55.

[85] Ibid.

[86] Aelian, On the Characteristics of Animals, in Aelian: On Animals, Books 6-11, trans. A.F. Scholfield (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959), 21.

[87] Krupp (1983-2003), 67. (Emph. added.)

[88] Bojana Mojsov, Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God [87](Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005), xviii. (Emph. added.)

[89] Faulkner (1973), 203-04.

[90] Eleazar M. Meletinky, The Poetics of Myth[89], trans. G. Lanoue and A. Sadetsky (Routledge: New York, 1998), 465.

[91] J.P. Allen (2005), 368.

[92] Emma Brunner-Traut, “Crocodiles,” in The Oxford Dictionary of Ancient Egypt Vol. 1, ed. D.B. Redford (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 320.

[93] Ruth Miller, Animal Kingdom: Reptiles[92] (Chicago: White-Thomson Publishing Ltd., 2005), 52.

[94] Erik Hornung, Idea into Image: Essays on Ancient Egyptian Thought, trans. E. Bredeck (New York: Timken Publishers, Inc., 1989-92), 41

[95] Herodotus, Histories, in The Landmark Herodotus: The Histories, ed. R.B. Strassler, trans. A.L. Purvis (New York: Anchor Books, 2009), 45.

[96] Plutarch, Moralia, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume VIII, trans. P.A. Clement and H.B. Hoffleit (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 153.

[97] Faulkner (1969), 127.

[98] Erik Hornung and Theodor Abt, The Egyptian Amduat: The Book of the Hidden Chamber, trans. D. Warburton (Zurich: Living Human Heritage Publications, 2007), 366-72.

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