Exploring myth

The BODILY resurrection of Osiris HERE on earth

Fig. 1

So my buddy & fellow WordPress blogger James Hiscox has also had a recent run-in with our favorite obstinate apologist. And true to form, today that fellow continued in his dubious ways, following in the erroneous footsteps of the likes of Bart Ehrman, Jonathan Z. Smith, and many an outdated 19th century author whose legacy of ignorance lives on in the ever dwindling number of publications that naively continue to parrot them rather than look to the more updated data within the field of Egyptology, and even more importantly, to the unambiguous words of the primary sources. In particular, this apologist does so concerning the resurrection of Osiris. I’ve already dealt with this issue at length in The Perennial Gospel to the point beyond all possibility of rebuttal, employing many a modern scholar and countless primary sources, oh so SO many primary sources FAR predating the Common Era. But those folks who are too cheap to drop the cash and/or too lazy to read the 900+ pages can get a small sample here for free. But be warned, like all internet bickering, the following will be a tedious & somniative read.

The errors of this apologist and those he is parroting here extend from two major problems which will each be dealt with in greater detail.

1. First & foremost, the biggest & most common mistake lay persons and certain scholars not specializing in Osirian religion make is the assumption that the Egyptians even believed in a spirit or a soul. They did not. They didn’t even believe in any parallel concepts. The terms often translated by outdated scholarship as “spirit” and “soul” are actually uniquely Egyptian concepts (ba, ka, akh) that do not correspond to the functions of our concept of a soul or spirit. The ancient Egyptians did not even have the concept of a body-soul or corporeal-incorporeal dichotomy. They were entirely monistic in their conception of man and his existence. The Western Graeco-Roman concept of the spirit & soul were anachronized onto indigenous Egyptian culture by foreign civilizations who conquered Egypt after its Late Period era, a bit of “Egyptosophy” if you will (to borrow a phrase from Dr. Erik Hornung). Hence any continued life after death for an ancient Egyptian would by default be physical bodily life, for they could conceive of no other mode of existence for man.

2. The second problem is, quite frankly, just flat out ignorance of the indigenous Egyptian primary source texts (and of their operation under the concept of sympathetic magic). Most people who likewise commit the errors of this apologist rely exclusively on the much later Graeco-Roman sources, without cross referencing them with authentic ancient Egyptian sources to cut away the dross. On the one hand, I can cut them a little bit of slack because the corpus of ancient Egyptian literature is so overwhelmingly vast that no mortal could possibly be familiar with all of it. But on the other hand, the resurrection of Osiris is arguably the most widely attested mythological/religious motif within Egyptian literature. (Even the Greek Herodotus observed that “only the gods Isis and Osiris are worshiped in the same manner by all Egyptians.”[1]) The wording in the primary sources leave absolutely no ambiguity or room for interpretation, they are utterly explicit in their portrayal of the resurrection of Osiris, and of those deceased who emulated him, as a bodily, physical, corporeal resurrection of the same body that died & began to decompose, a resurrection which occurred in their tombs here on earth in the world of the living, and which was followed by a transfiguration & ascension into heaven.

I Shall Give Up the Ghost

Fig. 2

So first things first, when approaching the subject of ancient Egyptian Osirian/funerary lore, you have to give up the “ghost”- the concept of it, that is. They didn’t have it. No doubt a few of you will run to the stacks of books or Google snippets of past scholars & translations throwing around such English terms as “spirit,” “soul,” “ghost,” “spiritual,” etc, when writing about ancient Egypt. But such terms are misnomers in that context, misnomers popularized by 18th & 19th century scholars who had an inferior understanding of ancient Egypt than we do today (their field was still in its infancy) and had the bias of viewing things through their filter of Western, Romanized thinking. Folks who continue employing such misnomers are keeping company with long since discarded & debunked authors such as E.A. Wallis Budge or Gerald Massey, etc. While there were a handful of scholars from that era who already began to see the problems with using such terms for ancient Egyptian thought, the tide really began to turn with the monumental work of the late great Dr. Louis V. Žabkar titled A Study of the Ba Concept in Ancient Egyptian Texts, dealing especially with the most abused Egyptian term concerning this subject- the ba.

It appears that both Spiegel and Fairman consider Unas’ burial ritual as a resurrection ritual. Spiegel often speaks of the “resurrection of the soul,” but on closer inspection it becomes evident that by that term he means the “coming-forth of the soul” from the grave. It seems to us that he should have used the latter term throughout his description and avoided the expression “resurrection of the soul.” First of all, the “soul” or, more correctly, the Ba never died, and without death there can be no resurrection. But there is another problem here. The Pyramid Texts state emphatically that the king never died: “(Unas) did not die, he departed alive.” Unas certainly died, but to the Egyptian mythopoeic mind his death was but a transition to a new life: “Thou sleepest, thou awakest; thou diest, thou livest.” This is the idea that lies behind the statement: “Atum, that son of yours is this here, Osiris … he lives and this Unas lives; he did not die, and this Unas did not die.” Spiegel understands these words as being addressed to the Ba of the king, but the Ba is not mentioned at all. The comparison is between the dead king and Osiris. Just as Osiris was killed and rose to new life, so the dead king, identified with Osiris, through the recitation of the spell is made alive again. In other words, what we have here is the bodily resurrection of the dead king and not the resurrection of his Ba, which never died.[2]

Here I must interrupt and say it astounds me when I not only see people deny that last statement by Dr. Žabkar there, that “what we have here is bodily resurrection,” but I’ve even seen attempts to quote this very work of Žabkar to support such denial! E.g. one Edwin Yamauchi, who cited Žabkar in support of his statement that “the Egyptians did not believe in a bodily resurrection from the dead.”[3] Wow, that could only be done by someone has not read Žabkar’s book here (which apparently would also include our apologist friend as well). Anyway, continuing where we left, with Dr. Žabkar stating the exact opposite of Yamauchi and our apologist pals:

In other words, what we have here is the bodily resurrection of the dead king and not the resurrection of his Ba, which never died. To be sure, the body was in the grave, but it did not remain there inert or inanimate; special spells were recited to call it back to life: “His limbs which were in the secret place when he joined those who are in Nun are (now) united; he spoke his last words in Heliopolis. Unas comes forth on this day in the real form of a living Akh in order that he may break up the fight and punish the quarrel. Unas comes forth as a guardian of Maat; he brings her, as she is in his possession.” The same idea of bodily resurrection lies behind another statement: “Thy body is the body of this Unas, thy flesh is the flesh of this Unas, thy bones are the bones of this Unas; thou goest and this Unas goes, thus Unas goes and thou goest.” This passage refers to Osiris, with whom the pharaoh is identified, as Sethe observed. Through the recitation of these spells and the effectiveness of the ritual, Unas becomes alive in his true physical corporeality. Only as such can he be transformed into a Ba or an Akh, traverse the earth and the heaven, find his place among the stars, and be in command of other glorified dead (Akhs).[4]

So what we see here is that it is the physical body which must be resurrected, and after such corporeal resurrection that same body is transformed into a ba and akh. Ba and akh therefore are not one’s “soul” and “spirit,” they are forms your body changes into after it has been resurrected. They do not represent immaterial disembodied vehicles of consciousness or whatever, they are not incorporeal ghosts, they are physical states of your physical body to give you new physical powers. As shall be demonstrated later, they are a transfiguration & shape-shifting of one’s body. In Egyptian thought, your ba is YOU, not a part of you, it is YOU. Your ba is your alter ego, so to speak, not your soul.

It is also amusing here that Dr. Žabkar yet again directly contradicted the aforementioned fellow who cited him when that fellow also wrote in that same place that “the person’s corpse remained in the tomb.” Žabkar had stated that the corpse “did NOT remain there” in the grave and that once resurrected & transformed, it could “traverse the earth and the heaven.” How embarrassing for poor Edwin. 😦 Anyway, continuing:

With this idea of bodily resurrection we reach perhaps the most ancient stratum of the Egyptian conception of the afterlife, that is, a continuation of life as a physical corporeality – a conception common to other religions at the earliest stage of their belief in survival. Certainly long before the period of the Pyramid Texts speculative theologians first attempted to elaborate this primitive belief in bodily survival by differentiating more precisely between various forms of existence in the hereafter: an effective body, an Akh, a Ba as well as other transformations the deceased could undergo. “The Akh (belongs) to heaven, the corpse (belongs) to the earth” is an emphatic statement indicating an advanced stage of this differentiation. It is to be remembered, however, that at all stages the body of the deceased was considered not as inert and lifeless matter but as a living entity which, with all its physical and psychic faculties, fully lived in all other forms of transformation and without the effective role of which no continuation of life could be conceived. Truly, then, the Egyptian concept of man in his afterlife knew nothing of his “spiritual” constituents as opposed to his physical ones.[5]

So again, no dichotomy of physical/spiritual, thus a resurrection could only ever be a bodily resurrection. Continuing in that line of thought, Žabkar wrote:

The corpse (3t) is just as alive and active as the Ba, the Shadow, the Ka, etc. The texts repeatedly promise that the deceased will have power over his entire body, especially over his legs, in order that he may achieve fullness of movement and life. Not only the body but also the Ba and cognate entities (Ka, Akh, Shadow) are endowed with physical vitality: “Thou (i.e., Anubis) hast caused my Ba, my Shadow, and my form to go with their feet to the place wherein that man is” (CT V 242 d to 243 a). The fact that in each of these forms (body or corpse, Ba, Ka, Akh, Shadow) the deceased acts and lives as a full individual points to a monistic concept of man as opposed to the idea, traditionally attributed to the Egyptians, of a man as a composite of a material and a spiritual element. Even though the Ka and some of these other entities coexisted with the individual during his lifetime, they were, each one of them, considered to be full physical entities and not “spiritual” components of a human composite.[6]

So even the other concepts such “ka” are physical forms, unlike the traditional Greco-Roman notion of spirit & soul, but we’ll circle back around to that later on. Anyway, in his article “Herodotus and the Egyptian Idea of Immortality,” Žabkar added:

Man is not a composite of the body and soul, and death does not mean a separation of the soul from the body. Here Herodotus, like some early and late Egyptologists, falls into error. References have often been made to a number of Egyptian texts to prove the dualistic concept of man in ancient Egypt, and to distinguish between the spiritual and material or physical elements in man. “Akh to heaven, corpse to the earth,” a spell to “remove the ba from the corpse,” the expression “heaven to thy ba, the underworld to thy corpse” occurring in its many versions in the New Kingdom tombs, and the wish that “the ba may not depart” from the body but “reach the corpse or rest upon it,”‘- these are the favorite examples of those who propound the dualistic interpretation of Egyptian mortuary texts. We take a definite exception to such an understanding of Egyptian religious texts. As a closer study of Spell 94 as well as the other Coffin Texts will reveal, the expression “to remove the ba from the corpse” means to make it emanate from the corpse, to make it come into existence, and represents one of the several answers which speculative theologians gave to the question of the origin of the ba. The Egyptian scribe or theologian himself interpreted the first part of the title of Spell 94 by saying that it was just another book or version of “coming forth by day,” a technical term which in the Coffin Texts and the Book of the Dead signifies unlimited freedom of movement and action performed interchangeably by the individual dead or his ba.[7]

Take note here that a ba comes into existence by emanating from the corpse, i.e. the ba is actually a form of, and thus a part of, the biological body. The ba is the deceased himself- it is his alter ego (see Žabkar et al. below). In terms of modern culture, the ba of Clark Kent is Superman, the ba of Bruce Banner is the Hulk, etc. This will come up again a little later. Continuing:

The expression “akh or ba to heaven, corpse to the underworld” does not stress the dualistic view of man either. As an akh the deceased may belong to heaven; as a ba to heaven, this earth, and even, though rarely, to the underworld; as a corpse he belongs to the underworld. But the heaven is not the only abode of the ba or akh. We read in the Spell 163, vs. 7 of the Book of the Dead that “heaven holds his (scil. Osiris’) ba, the earth his form,” while vs. 3 of the same spell tells us that “his ba rests within his corpse.” Numerous tomb inscriptions and vignettes of the Book of the Dead represent the ba alighting on the branches of the trees and enjoying the amenities of a cool pool in a garden, while the stelas of all periods implore that the ba may come forth by day to see the sun, follow the sun-god on his journey across the sky, alight upon the corpse, go in and come out in the underworld. Thus the expression “the ba to heaven” does not indicate that the ba as “the spiritual element” goes to heaven as the permanent abode of the “soul” upon the “separation” from the body, but merely reveals an aspiration on the part of the deceased that his ba may enjoy unlimited freedom of movement in the sky in the company of the sun-god-an action for which it is, in its quality of a ba-bird, perfectly fit. Furthermore, the deceased is just as living and active in his corpse as he is in his ba, ka, “shadow,” and other manifestations in which he may appear.[8]

Returning to the previous work:

The Ba is not a soul, neither an internal nor an “external” one. There is no internal dualism in man, opposing the spiritual element to the material, and consequently there is no internal soul. The Ba does not exist as a separate external entity during the life of an individual, for is it a spiritual entity after his death, and there it is not an “external” soul.
The dualistic view that man is constituted of two distinct elements, in the sense of the Orphic, Platonic, Gnostic, and Scholastic philosophies, is alien to the Egyptian concept of man. Though the ancient Egyptian was thought to live after death in a multiplicity of forms, each of these forms was the full man himself. For this reason we consider the Egyptian concept of man to be monistic. Thus the Ba is not a part nor an element of a man but is one of the forms in which he fully lives after death; the Ba is the man himself, his personified alter ego.[9]

Elsewhere, Dr. Žabkar concluded:

The dead lives a full life as a ba, ka, akh-or any other form he may wish to assume- just as he does as a living body, capable of all physical functions in a glorified and blessed existence. This is what we call a monistic concept of man, specific to the Egyptian doctrine of the after-life, and its corollary is, that the Egyptian notion of “paradise” or “hell” knew nothing of the disembodied spirit of a man. It is impossible to identify the ba, ka, or akh with the spiritual element, in opposition to the body as its material or physical element. The Egyptian concept of man knows no such distinction. Not only are these terms not described in the texts as spiritual elements, but in the Coffin Texts and elsewhere we see them performing certain functions typical of physical and not spiritual agents. To translate the ba or any of the words here discussed as “soul,” or to speak of “multiple souls” would be a matter of grave inaccuracy and misconception; it would mean reading into the Egyptian concept of man notions which were foreign to it. If we carefully read the “transformation-spells” we will notice that they do not speak of the soul which at the death leaves the body, but of the man himself, who, even though being a corpse—after an authoritative and efficacious ritual has been performed—is “risen and made whole,” as Spell 77 of the Book of the Dead states. He becomes an effective being, an akh, externally manifested as the ba-bird, phoenix, heron, golden falcon, lotus-flower, man or god. In full possession of all his physical qualities, effective in any animal, human or divine form, he enters upon a new glorified life, conceived in purely physical terms—from this an Egyptian could hardly ever dissociate himself, and this he could never sublimate or spiritualize.[10]


Now before any antagonistic readers start to murmur that this is the word of only one scholar, this conclusion is not unique to just Žabkar. As I stated previously, this work of his really began to turn the tides and since his time many other prominent scholars have followed in his wake. And of course, they have no choice but to do so, for that is where the research leads. First up are the testimonials affirming the absence of a physical/spiritual-corporeal/incorporeal dichotomy.

The Egyptians did not know the western opposition of body and soul.

Dr. Erik Hornung, History of Ancient Egypt: An Introduction[11]

The interpretation of the ba being particularly controversial. Not infrequently it has been translated into English as ‘soul’, but this rendering is seriously misleading in that it ignores the fact that the Egyptians did not think in terms of body and spirit … in their conceptual world all things were material and perceived as concrete.

Dr. Alan B. Lloyd, Ancient Egypt: State and Society[12]

According to Herodotus Pythagoras and the Orphics obtained their doctrine of παλιγγενεσία from Egypt (II, 123). This is certainly incorrect. Not only is there no evidence of this idea in Egypt but it is fundamentally opposed to the Egyptian mentality. The idea of metempsychosis is inseparably linked with the concept of the dual nature of man–body and soul–and the idea that the soul is required to purify itself from corporeal dross in a series of re-incarnations until it can be released from the cycle of births. The Egyptian concept was very different. Certainly man is composed of several ingredients—body, , —but there is no fundamental dualism between body and spirit and they can never be permanently separated.

Dr. Alan B. Lloyd, Herodotus Book II: Introduction[13]

To understand why the life, death, and resurrection of Osiris were so significant, one must first grasp how the ancient Egyptians conceived of the human being. Their conception was essentially a monistic one. They did not divide the person into a corruptible body and immortal soul. They did, however, perceive each individual as having a “corporeal self” and a “social self.” For both, “connectivity” was an essential prerequisite. Just as the disparate limbs of the human body could only function effectively as parts of a properly constituted whole, so too could the individual person only function as a member of a properly structured society.

Dr. Mark J. Smith, in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology[14]

It was stressed above that the Egyptian conception of the human being was a monistic one. The Egyptians did not divide the individual into separate components like a body and a soul. But the references in the preceding paragraphs to terms like akh, ba, ka, and Osirian form, may appear to contradict this statement. In fact, there is no contradiction. It must be emphasised that terms like ba, ka, and so on do not denote constituent parts of a complete person. Rather, each denotes the complete person, only viewed from a slightly different aspect to the others. These aspects do not split the individual into smaller units. What they really do is connect the individual to groups of other beings or other spheres of existence within the cosmos.

Instead of fragmenting the self, they extend it. This illustrates once again the importance of social integration in the Egyptian conception of resurrection. The principle of ‘connectivity’ was just as central in the next world as it was in this one.

Dr. Mark J. Smith, in The Human Body in Death and Resurrection[15]

Fig. 3: Diagram by Dr. Mark J. Smith illustrating that ba, ka, and akh are not pieces of a person, but rather forms or roles that a person fulfills as they participate in various realms. Therefore…

Fig. 4

As the Egyptians conceived it, there was a crucial aspect of human personality that did not develop from the inside to the outside, but in the opposite direction, from the outside to the inside. They made the essential distinction within the totality of a person not that between the body and the soul, but that between the individual self and the social self.

Dr. Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt[16]

When god is designated ba, he is seen as a dynamic being in the act of manifesting himself – the god who comes into being. This ba-power can manifest itself as animate and inanimate objects, as well as other gods. In the cosmogony the ba of Horus appears as the Winged Disk (Cpj): it is the Flying Ba (Bȝ-dd).

This feature points to another aspect of ba: ba links the god with his own pre-being. It is the ba that effects the transition from the underworld (dȝt). Structurally, ba therefore corresponds to the transcendent soul of dualistic systems, and this is why the word sometimes has been translated “soul”. However, the translation is not satisfactory because ba is not equivalent to soul in modern European sense. Egyptian anthropology conceives of god (and man) as a unit of faculties that can be classified as psychical and physical. The dualistic paradigm of a being constituted by the complementary soul and body has no place in Egyptian thought. Thus, ba (and ka – which is also sometimes translated “soul”) refers to the entire personality, and “person” or “self” might in many cases be the nearest equivalents to the terms. The ba can be invisible (namely, in the underworld (dȝt) where it is not seen) or manifested (the perceptible, cosmic phenomenon), but this distinction does not coincide with the categories of soul and body.

Dr. Ragnhild B. Finnestad, Image of the World and Symbol of the Creator[17]

The Egyptians did not embrace the Cartesian dichotomy of body and soul as separate and distinct spheres. They did not subscribe to a rationalization, comparable to the Western concepts of internal and external, in respect to the origins of thoughts and emotions, spirituality or self-determination.

Dr. Lynn Meskell, Private Life in New Kingdom Egypt[18]

And for good measure, the testimony of an actual Egyptian priest- Chaeremon of Alexandria (1st cen. CE):

We had Chaeremon as a witness that the Egyptians believed in nothing prior to the visible world nor in any other gods than the planets and the other stars, and that they interpreted all things as referring to the visible parts of the world and nothing in reference to incorporeal and living beings. … Chaeremon and most of the others believed in nothing else prior to the visible worlds and gave the Egyptians pride of place, for these interpreted all things as referring to the physical world and nothing in reference to incorporeal and living beings.

Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica 3.9, 13 (trans. P.W. Van Der Horst)

Chaeremon and the others do not believe in anything prior to the visible worlds, stating that the basic principles are the gods of the Egyptians … they interpret everything as referring to physical things and nothing reference to incorporeal or living beings.

Porphyry, Epistula ad Anebonem 2.12-13 (trans. P.W. Van Der Horst)

Next up are the testimonials affirming the physical, biological, bodily nature of the ba.

Ba. One of several Egyptian words associated with our concept of “soul,” but … It maintains a physical existence, and thus is not a real “soul.”

Dr. Erik Hornung, The Valley of the Kings: Horizon of Eternity[19]

A further consequence of the rites of mummification was the awakening or animating of the ba of the deceased. The word ba means literally ‘what is immanent’, i.e. visible manifestation. In Greek, it can be rendered ειδωλον. Egyptian texts often contrast the ba of a deceased person and his body, but one should not conclude from this that the former was regarded as a soul or disembodied spirit. The ba is not an element or component of an individual. Rather, it is the whole person, but as seen from a particular aspect: the form in which the deceased was manifested in the physical world.

As a ba, the deceased could leave the realm of the dead and travel anywhere on earth or in the sky. In fact, mobility was one of the most salient characteristics of this aspect of an individual. Bas were corporeal; they ate and drank and could even engage in sexual activity. They also had the capacity to assume non-human forms. This not only enhanced the deceased’s power, but brought them into closer communion with the gods as well, since by assuming the form of a particular creature they could join the following of the deity with whom it was associated. The belief that the ba could adopt multiple modes of appearance probably explains why, in some sources, an individual is said to possess more than one. After undergoing a transformation of the type described above, or engaging in other sorts of activity, the ba of a dead person was believed to merge with his body in the underworld each night, alighting and breathing upon it, thereby maintaining it in a state of life.

Dr. Mark J. Smith, in The Human Body in Death and Resurrection[20]

The ba is, however, not exclusively a spiritual-psychic being. … The translation psyche is not really possible then: revelation or manifestation is more acceptable. The ba is an alter ego of humans both in a psychic and in a corporeal sense.

Dr. Herman Te Velde, in Concepts of Person in Religion and Thoughts[21]

To the physical sphere belonged, naturally, the concepts of body, limbs, and corpse, as well as ba and “shadow.”

Dr. Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt[22]

The fact of death did not make man immortal. A soul was made, not born. Strictly speaking, there is no concept in ancient Egypt which corresponds to our idea of the soul: an invisible, nonmaterial dweller within the flesh which animates the body during life and leaves it after death to seek whatever fate its owner’s deeds and beliefs have destined it for. … The word “ba” is often translated as “soul”; but as a rule it did not come into existence until after death, and even then only as a result of special ceremonies which were designed to “make a man into a ba.”

Dr. Barbara Mertz, Red Land, Black Land: Daily Life in Ancient Egypt[23]

The ba, although translated as “soul,” represents the physical manifestation and power of the god. Thus, the bas of the sun god were the many forms he could take, one of which was the phoenix, which is called the “ba of Re” and into which the deceased wished to transform by means of BD spell 83.

Dr. Foy Scalf, in Between Heaven and Earth: Birds in Ancient Egypt[24]

Now back to Žabkar:

It would be difficult to find a text which would better indicate that the deceased enjoyed the afterlife both as a Ba and as a revivified body, or indeed, as any form he might assume, than does a well-known inscription in the tomb of Paheri: “(Thou shalt) transform into a living Ba and truly it will have power over bread, water, and air; (thou shalt) make transformation into a phoenix, a swallow, a falcon, a heron, as thou pleases. Thou shalt cross in the ferry boat without being turned back. Thou shalt sail on the waters of the flood and thy life shall begin anew. Thy Ba shall not depart from thy corpse, thy Ba shall be divine with the Akhs. The excellent Bas shall speak to thee; thou shalt be equal amongst (them) in receiving what is given upon earth. Thou shalt have power over water, breathe air, and drink according to the wish of thy heart. Thine eyes shall be given to thee to see, thine ears to hear what is said, thy mouth speaking, thy feet walking. Thine arms and thy shoulders shall move for thee, thy flesh shall be firm and thy muscles shall be strong and thou shalt have enjoyment of all thy limbs. Thou shalt examine thy body (which will be) whole and sound, without any evil whatsoever being attached to thee. Thy heart will truly be with thee, thy former heart will belong to thee. Thou shalt go forth to heaven, thou shalt penetrate the underworld in any form that thou pleasest.” … In the mortuary texts of these periods the meaning of the Ba is predominately that of the alter ego of the deceased. … This Ba is the personification of the vital forces, physical as well as psychic, of the deceased, his alter ego, one of the modes of being in which and as which he continues to live after death. This Ba comes into existence at or after death, is corporeal in nature, performs physical activities such as eating, drinking, and copulating, and has wide-ranging freedom of movement through the realms of the afterlife. Moreover, this Ba is not a part of the deceased but is in effect (as referred to in some texts) the deceased himself in the fulllness of his being, physical as well as psychic. All these characteristics make it obvious that the Ba was not a “soul” in any of the connotations associated with this word.[25

So as seen above, a ba has to be deliberately created, rather than it coming into being spontaneously. And just what is it that gets created? An alter ego. And how is one made? Through magic, in particular, spells which transform the man himself into a ba. As stated, the ba comes into existence as an emanation from the body. In other words, the ba is a form of, a hypostasis of, and a part of, the biological body itself after the magical spells transform that physical, biological body into a ba, into its alter ego. Hence, as stated earlier, if applied to modern mythology, the ba of Clark Kent would be Superman. The ba of Bruce Banner would be the Hulk. The ba of Billy Batson would be Captain Marvel, etc. and so on. Using magical spells to transform the deceased into his ba are like using the magical spell “Shazam!” to transform Batson into Captain Marvel, or like when Clark jumps into a phone booth to transform into Superman. Superman is a form of Clark. He is not Clark’s “soul,” he is Clark’s hypostasis, he is Clark’s true form & identity- the state in which his power is manifest. They inhabit the same body, for they are one & the same entity. Hence the Egyptian expression “ba to heaven, body to earth” would be “Superman to heaven, Clark Kent to earth.” When Clark ascends to heaven like the gods, he does so in the form of his ba, in the form of Superman- his alter ego. Superman is just as physical, corporeal, and alive as Clark, because he is Clark. And just as Superman or Captain Marvel or the Hulk all emanate from the same physical, biological bodies of their human alter egos, so too the ba of an Egyptian human or god emanates from his/her physical, biological body. Hence images in Egyptian artwork depicting a person and his ba in the same scene should not be any more confusing for us than when we see the same spacial constraints used in comic books which portray both a human and his superhero alter ego in the exact same scene. As seen below, the Hulk is not some disembodied soul of Banner leaving Banner’s corpse, he is a physical form of Banner himself emanating from that same body.

Fig. 5: Bruce Banner and his ba (i.e. alter ego), the incredible Hulk.

Fig. 6

Fig. 7

Fig. 8: Billy Batson transforming into his ba, Captain Marvel, through the use of magical incantation, much like what the ancient Egyptians believed.

Fig. 9

Fig. 9

Fig. 10

Fig. 10: Billy and his ba are still one & the same corporeal entity, in spite of often being visually depicted vis–à–vis one another.

Fig. 11: And the same goes for Clark Kent and his ba, Superman. (And just as the aforementioned Egyptian phrase declares: the ba—Superman—is up in heaven, and the body—Clark Kent—is down on earth.)

Fig. 11: And the same goes for Nefertari and her ba.

Fig. 12: And the same goes for Nefertari and her ba.

Spell for going forth by day … letting him enter and leave the god’s domain and assuming the form of a living .

Book of the Dead, Spell 180 P 1

In this respect, perhaps the best illustration of the ba concept is that of the character Tyler Durden in the film Fight Club, directed by David Fincher. In this story, Tyler Durden (played by Brad Pitt) is merely the alter ego of the narrator & main protagonist, “Jack” (played by Edward Norton). “Jack” often sees and interacts with Tyler as though he is a physically distinct entity, occasionally even physically interacting with Tyler via fist fights or sharing beers, etc. Yet they are one in the same person, the very same physical body. Tyler is not Jack’s “soul” or “spirit.” When Jack is physically harmed, so is Tyler. If Jack dies, Tyler dies. Tyler does not live on in some disembodied state should Jack die. Tyler has no existence apart from Jack, in any capacity. The only way for Tyler to live again is for Jack to live again, for Tyler is Jack. In fact, Tyler is even more mortal than Jack, for Jack is actually the one who lives on (physically, of course) after Tyler dies. For Tyler is merely his alter ego.

However, there have been plenty of instances in the corpus of Marvel & DC Comics in which superheros are in fact occasionally physically separated from their alter egos, occupying two different points in space simultaneously, and even physically interacting with each other (even fighting each other), yet they both still come from & return back into one & the same physical body.

Fig. 14: Banner and his ba, the Hulk, physically manifest in different locations simultaneously, in spite of being one & the same entity.

Fig. 15: Banner & his ba physically interact with each other. The Hulk is not a ghost, and he is not Banner’s soul. They are consubstantial hypostases of each other.

Fig. 17: Clark Kent physically interacts with his ba, Superman.

Fig. 17: Clark Kent physically interacts with his ba, Superman, in spite of being one & the same entity composed of the same flesh & blood.

In much the same way, an Egyptian’s ba/alter ego could be temporarily separated from him and occupy multiple locations simultaneously, even though both are still using the same physical body. This is akin to the many instances in which Egyptian gods will maim themselves and cut off an appendage of their body, such as an eye, and shape-shifts that appendage into a different form & then sends it out to do that god’s bidding.[26] So too can a divine Egyptian, through the use of magic, remove portions of its own flesh and mold it into certain forms, or even into an exact replica of himself, and send it out to act on his own behalf as though it were himself, since, as his alter ego and his own flesh, it literally IS still himself.

In the Coffin Texts, there are portions of a liturgy whose aim was to enable the ba to separate itself from the corpse and to exit the netherworld unhindered. Spells 94-96 and 488-500 are part of this liturgy. Spell 94 is entitled “Causing the Ba to Depart from the Corpse,” a sentiment that runs counter to the fear, frequently expressed in later texts, that the ba might distance itself from corpse. In this spell, the ba is still in close contact with the body. Osiris has created it out of the discharges of his flesh and the semen of his phallus; it is the “ba in its blood.” From his bodily fluids, Osiris creates a ba that is to emerge into the light of day and take sexual pleasure in the world above. This was a role the deceased wished to play. In spell 96, the deceased calls himself “that great ba of Osiris, on whose behalf the gods have ordained that he copulate by means of (etc.).” The corresponding divine commandment reads, “Come out and copulate by means of your ba.” This concept shows clearly that the ba belonged to the physical sphere. … The ba belonged to the physical sphere of the deceased, restoring his movement and his ability to take on form. … Here we are clearly in the horizon of the image of death as corporal vulnerability. This much is shown by the list of body parts enumerated in the spell: eyes, knees, jb-heart,, ba, corpse, body, throat, and nose. The unity of the person has collapsed, and it must be restored to the deceased. Even the ba belongs to this group of physical aspects and elements; it is one of the personal items that must be returned to the deceased.

Dr. Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt[27]

O great one who issues from the efflux which comes into being from the human body. … Go, go yonder of mine, that yonder god may see you wherever he is in my form, my shape and my wisdom … you go by means of the efflux of my flesh and the sweat of my head.

Coffin Texts, Spell 102 II, 106-08 (22nd cen. BCE)[28]

As just seen, one’s ba is a form of & part of the body every bit as much as the eyes, ears, hands, legs, head, heart, fluids, etc. It is a portion of the flesh & blood of the deceased. So it makes sense that it needs to perpetually reunite with the original body from which it came, or as Assmann said, it must be returned to the deceased, just as Superman had to reunite with Clark as seen in the video above. The ba is the physical, biological body. It is both the body of the deceased himself after being transformed and it is an extra body for the deceased shaped from a portion of that same flesh, which allows the deceased to exist in various locations and forms all simultaneously. Hence the ba is a consubstantial “hypostatic projection of identity and power.”[29] Hence the Egyptian can be in heaven, on earth, and below the earth, all at the same time- one of the many perks of the magical power they acquire after being divinized post-resurrection. Much like the god Osiris whom they emulate to obtain that resurrection & transfiguration:

Osiris is present in several different forms at once, as will often be the case in subsequent phases of the journey.

Dr. Dimitri Meeks and Dr. Christine Favard-Meeks , Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods[30]

Another analogy to help illustrate this aspect of the ba is seen in the Shonen Jump manga known as Naruto, by Masashi Kishimoto. The title character’s special skill is a magical spell known as “kage bunshin no jutsu.” It allows the caster to make a perfect biological replica of his or her self which is exactly the same as the caster in every way. It can fight on the caster’s behalf when outnumbered by the enemy, or it can perform any other task the caster is also capable of. Once the spell has fulfilled its purpose, the bunshin is then reabsorbed into the original body, transferring all of the energy, memories, and experience to the caster. Whenever other characters in the series interact with one of Naruto’s kage bunshins, even when they are aware that it is a bunshin, they treat the bunshin exactly as they would Naruto himself- because it is Naruto himself. The only difference is location. The kage bunshin is a consubstanial hypostasis of the caster, just like the Egyptian ba. And like the ba, a kage bunshin can, through the spell “henge no jutsu,” shape-shift into just about any form Naruto desires, including inanimate objects. Also like Naruto’s bunshins, one’s ba can be duplicated (“I have duplicated your for your power”- Coffin Texts, Spell 1006[31]) so that one can manifest multiple ba forms at once, e.g. Re has at least seven.[32]

Fig. 18: Through the kage bunshin concept, Naruto can manifest his body in multiple locations simultaneously, and can even physically interact with himself, and shape-shift into different forms (e.g. the shuriken)- which are many of the same powers achieved through the Egyptian ba concept. [Note: a manga page is to be read from right to left.]

Fig. : When other people interact with Naruto's kage bunshin, they do so just as if it were Naruto itself, because it still IS Naruto himself- just as an Egyptian's ba IS still himself, even when manifest in different locations.

Fig. 19: When other people interact with Naruto’s kage bunshin, they do so just as if it were Naruto himself, because it still IS Naruto himself- just as an Egyptian’s ba IS still himself, even when manifest in different locations.

As Dr. Žabkar wrote, the deceased thus is a ba and owns a ba.[33]

You have your , you being a .

Coffin Texts, Spell 279 IV, 26[34]

Fig. : Inherkau interacting with his ba, in spite of the fact that he actually is that very ba.

Fig. 20: Inherkhau interacting with his ba, in spite of the fact that he actually is that very ba, just as Naruto can physically interact with his bunshin and yet at the same time be that bunshin, or just as Clark can fight with Superman and at the same time still be Superman.

Fig. : Ani interacting with his ba, yet at the same time he is that ba.

Fig. 21: Ani interacting with his ba, yet at the same time he is that ba.

This can be seen illustrated in Fig.22-25, in which Osiris is seen as his ba-form, Apis[35], and yet elsewhere is seen with his ba, Apis. The same occurs in Fig.26-27 where Osiris appears as his ba-form of Sokar[36], but in another instance is shown with his ba in the form of Sokar. In fact, in Fig. 28, Osiris is actually manifested as both ba-forms simultaneously, appearing as Sokar and Apis at the same time. In Fig. 29-30, Isis is off to the left in human form (always identifiable by her trademark throne-shaped crown), yet the kite hovering above the mummy is also Isis, thus clearly a usage of the ba. The fact that a body can manifest its ba in a separate location yet still be alive even further distances the ba from the Greco-Roman idea of soul/spirit, which allegedly animates the body and thus would render the body comatose or dead upon its departure.

Fig. 22: Bust of Osiris transforming into his ba– the Apis bull; replica of original from Hadrian’s Villa, currently at the Condé Museum in Chantilly.

Fig. : Antinous portrayed as Osiris-Apis (see p.209) emerging from a lotus flower; from the Serapaeum of the Canope (also located at Hadrian’s Villa), currently at the Vatican’s Gregorian Egyptian Museum.

Fig. 23: Antinous portrayed as Osiris becoming Apis; from the Serapaeum of the Canope (also located at Hadrian’s Villa), currently at the Vatican’s Gregorian Egyptian Museum.

Fig. 24: Osiris in the form of his ba- Apis.

Fig. 24: Osiris in the form of his ba– Apis; left- Gardiner (1841, based on the 26th Dynasty Stela of Apis from Saqqara), right- Budge (1911).

Fig. 25: Osiris scene here with his ba, Apis, as Horus takes vengeance on Seth;

Fig. 25: Osiris seen here with his ba, Apis, as Horus takes vengeance on Seth; Mariette (1873- based on reliefs at Dendera).

Fig. 26: Osiris seen here in the form of his ba known as Sokar;

Fig. 26: Osiris seen here in the form of his ba known as Sokar; Mariette (ibid).

Fig. 27: Osiris seen here with his ba- Sokar;

Fig. 27: Osiris seen here with his ba– Sokar; Wilkinson (1841).

Fig. 28: Osiris seen both as his ba, Sokar, and yet also with his ba, Apis; Mariette (ibid.). Recall- “You have your , you being a ” & “Osiris is present in several different forms at once.”

Fig. 29:

Fig. 29: To the left “stands Isis” in human form, while simultaneously she is hovering above Osiris in bird form, thus clearly a usage of her ba.

Fig. 30:

Fig. 30: Same as before- Isis is to the left in human form, yet is also above Osiris in avian form.

Osiris as ba, ka, and akh

Fig. 31: Recall Dr. Smith’s diagram above (Fig. 3).

Ba is even explicitly equated with the body when Osiris merges with the sun in the netherworld, as seen on the Stela of Amenmose– “Hail to you, Osiris … Ba of Re, his very body.”

And He was Transfigured Before Them

Fig. 32

The ba was not the only form the body of the deceased could obtain after its resurrection. There was an even better form, an immortal form, a divine form. To obtain this form, those resurrected from the dead must also undergo a transfiguration. This transfigured state is known as akh. Again, like the case with the ba, the akh is not a soul or spirit. It is still very much physical because it is a form of your body.

The Egyptians believed that by creating a mummy, the corpse (khat) was able to achieve the ultimate transfigured state known as akh and thus become like Osiris.

Dr. Lidija M. McKnight, in Mummies Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Mummies in History, Religion, and Popular Culture[37]

It was the aḫu (3ḫw), or spiritualized, transfigured body (ẖet) which went to heaven (PT 474, cf. 318), a word which is often translated “soul” or “spirit,” but without justification.

Dr. Samuel A.B. Mercer, The Religion of Ancient Egypt[38]

Performing the rites of mummification was believed to restore the deceased to life, but this was not their only result. Another consequence was that they elevated him or her to a new, exalted status, that of akh. The root from which this word is derived refers to a power or force which operates without visible connection between cause and effect. …

How was this power mobilized in the mummification ritual? It could be harnessed through the medium of the spoken or recited word, specifically through a category of spells known as glorifications or transfigurations. The Egyptian word for these, sakhu, is derived from the same root as the noun akh and means literally ‘making or transfiguring into an akh ‘. One becomes an akh as a result of their recitation. It was precisely spells of this nature that Isis uttered to restore Osiris to life. Here we have the answer to our question, how could the deceased hope to emulate that god? By being glorified or transfigured in the same manner as he was.

Dr. Mark J. Smith, in The Human Body in Death and Resurrection[39]

The Egyptians considered their blessed, efficient, and influential dead (i.e., the akhu) as “living,” that is, as “resurrected.” According to Egyptian ideas on life, death, and resurrection, a person did not have an akh, he or she had to become one. Moreover, this posthumous status was not reached automatically. Human beings had to be admitted and become transfigured or elevated into this new state. The dead became blessed or effective akhu only after mummification and proper burial rites were performed on them and after they had passed through obstacles of death and the trials of the underworld. Thus, only a person who lived according to the order of maat, who benefited from rituals or spells called the sakhu—those which “cause one to become an akh” or the “akh-ifiers”—and was subsequently buried, could be glorified or become transfigured into an akh. Late Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period offering formulae attest the idea that a person was made akh by the lector priest and the embalmer. After reaching this status, the dead were revived and raised to a new plane of existence. The positive status of the mighty and transfigured akhu was mirrored by a negative concept of the mutu who represented those who remained dead, i.e., the damned. …

As early as in the Pyramid Texts (PT §§ 584 – 585, 612, 636, 648, 1712, 2264), Osiris is said to have become an akh (blessed, justified, glorified, resurrected, mighty, etc.) through the deeds of his son Horus; in the same way, Horus was believed to have become akh-effective and was legitimized by his father Osiris.

Dr. Jíří Janák, in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology[40]

A preliminary offering ritual is performed, the numerous rites of which are called “glorifications,” or, literally, “that which makes one into an akh” (s3ḫw).

Dr. Harold Hays, in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology[41]

The goddesses Isis and Nephthys mourn and praise the deceased, while glorification texts proclaim—and thus enable—the dead person’s successful transition to a transfigured state of being.

Dr. Christina Riggs, in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology[42]

The akh is the human being as a glorified departed one, who resides in the grave or the realm of the dead, but can also intervene in life upon earth.

Dr. Herman Te Velde, in Concepts of Person in Religion and Thoughts[43]

Let me interject here briefly and point out how the fact that once transfigured, a resurrected Egyptian could still “intervene in life upon earth” contradicts the common dubious objection from apologists that after Osiris’ death he was forever bound to the netherworld never to return to the world of the living here on earth. I continue to destroy this ludicrous objection even further in The Perennial Gospel pp.478-86 & 501-06 in vivid detail with countless scholars & primary sources. For some quick samples: “Horus, having resurrected his father, adorned him with the fillet, and defeated his enemies; Osiris is free to leave the Underworld“- Dr. Colleen Manassa, The Late Egyptian Underworld[44]; “Your son Horus has acted on your behalf, and the Great Ones tremble when they see the sword which is in your hand when you ascend from the Netherworld“- Pyramid Texts (24th cen. BCE), Utt. 247 § 257[45]; see also Dr. Savvopoulos below.

Now getting back on track:

They hoped for a transfigured body that resembled its earthly counterpart yet surpassed it in both size and abilities. Although once again fully functional, this afterlife body would be free of all earthly shortcomings; it would even repeatedly “rejuvenate itself in the tomb.” All the physical infirmities normally associated with old age would be overcome in the renewed body. Missing limbs would regenerate themselves, a severed head even rejoin its torso. The unlimited capacity for change and regeneration is the foundation for all ancient Egyptian beliefs about the hereafter. …

It is shown always as a mummy, which indicates not merely the physical body, but the more general concept of divine life-form in the hereafter. A person can become an akh only after death, and descriptions of the afterlife differentiate clearly between akhs—the blessed dead—and those dead persons who have been judged and condemned. Related to the Egyptian verb meaning “to illuminate,” the term akh is usually translated as “transfigured one,” for it is through a process of ritual transfigurations that the deceased becomes and akh.

Dr. Erik Hornung, Idea into Image: Essays on Ancient Egyptian Thought[46]

The Pyramid Texts contain the oldest available references to mouth-opening rites in Egypt. These are royal texts dating from the Old Kingdom composed of a funerary ritual of mortuary offerings, connected with the corporeal reconstitution, resurrection, spiritualization and deification of the deceased king, and involving magical apotropaic formulae, mythical formulae identifying the deceased king with certain deities, prayer and petitions on behalf of the deceased king and proclamations of his heavenly transfiguration and greatness. …

It is succeeded by a multitude of Utterances, for example, endowing the deceased with charms to ward off serpents on his way through the chthonic realm (Ut. 226-43), powers and aids in the encounter with the ferryman (Ut. 300-311, 503-522), celebrating his rebirth, resurrection, ascension, transfiguration and life as a God in Heaven (Ut. 529-90), trailing off with addresses to the deceased king as a God (Ut. 690; cf. Mercer 1952: I, ix-xi).

Dr. Gregory Yuri Glazov, The Bridling of the Tongue and the Opening of the Mouth in Biblical Prophecy[47]

Egyptian thinking deemed that the corporeal self should have integrity in death. The body wrappings and coffins were regenerative casings that would allow the transfigured body to emerge free from earthly imperfections.

Dr. Lynn Meskell, Private Life in New Kingdom Egypt[48]

The akh was the deceased transfigured into an eternal and unchanging living being of light, frequently associated with the stars.

Dr. Salima Ikram, Death and Burial in Ancient Egypt[49]

Elaborate ritual sequences formed a central part of the system designed to bring the deceased back to life and keep them there, i.e. to convert them to akhs, ‘luminous ones’, members of the resurrected and transfigured dead.

Dr. Alan B. Lloyd, Ancient Egypt: State and Society[50]

The glorified bodies (sˁḥw) are rejuvenated.

Temple of Edfu, V 29, line 13[51]

So even with Mr. Carpenter‘s unjustified ad hoc stipulation thatresurrection is a very specific idea of a dead person returning in a glorified body. There is no other type of ‘resurrection’ if we use the term properlywhich he uses to try and distance the resurrection of his religion from Osirian resurrection still fails him in that purpose. Carpenter man declares: “Osiris resurrected? Not if ‘resurrection’ is defined as coming back in a glorified body.” This ad hoc is echoed by our obstinate apologist friend who initially inspired this article:

Glorified body of Osiris

Actually, as we just saw in the sources quoted above, yes he was. Osiris, and the deceased Egyptians who emulated him in their last rites, most certainly were believed to have been physically resurrected “in a glorified body,” which they called the akh.

He is Like unto a Man Beholding his Natural Face in a Mirror

Fig. : Ka

Fig. 33: Ka

Just like the case with ba & akh, the word “ka” too has often been mistranslated as “soul” or “spirit,” and so there is no shortage of books for obstinate antagonists to run to and say “see! Here it says ‘soooooouuuuul’!!1!” But alas, as with ba & akh , those too are inadequate, outdated misnomers. “Double” has likewise been a traditional translation and is a bit more accurate, but still does not do it justice.
The ka is your reflection, your image (or “appearance”), and by extension (especially in the familial context) your “likeness.” Just as you look at the ground in the sunlight and see your shadow, you look in a mirror or water etc. and you see your ka, your “double,” your image. Hence why the hieroglyph for the ka is a pair of arms, since a person’s arms are mirror images of one another.

Like the shadow which cannot be detached from the object, so, too, the Ka or Double is the reflection of the object as it is conceived in the mind.

Dr. Andrey O. Bolshakov, Man and his Double in Egyptian Ideology of the Old Kingdom[52]

A mirror can enclose one’s double (for example, the Egyptian Ka).

Dr. Rabun M. Taylor, The Moral Mirror of Roman Art[53]

Senet's servant brings a mirror to access her ka, i.e. her reflection.

Fig. 34: A maid servant brings a mirror (and ointment) to Senet, which she describes as “For your ka.” From the tomb of Senet at Thebes, TT60, 20th century BCE.

Hence why statues made of yourself are likewise called your ka, they are images or likenesses of you, just as your reflection in a mirror is.

The external ka is any representation of the person in a graphic image.

Dr. Glenn S. Holland, Gods in the Desert: Religions of the Ancient Near East[54]

The kȝ is the Double manifesting itself in representations … The Double exists only in the unity with its manifestations. … This is supported by the interpretation of purchasing servants’ representations as buying their kȝ.w.

Dr. Andrey O. Bolshakov, Man and his Double in Egyptian Ideology of the Old Kingdom[55]

Fig. 35: This statue is an image of Hor Awibre (18th cen. BCE), made in his likeness, and as such it is his ka- as explicitly identified by the double-arm ka symbol upon his head.

Fig. 35: This statue is an image of Hor Awibre (18th cen. BCE), made in his likeness, and as such it is his ka, as explicitly identified by the double-arm ka symbol upon his head.

Fig. 36: Ka statue of Amenemhet III, 19th cen. BCE.

Fig. 36: Ka statue of Amenemhet III, 19th cen. BCE.

Fig. 37: Ka statue of Djoser,

Fig. 37: Ka statue of Djoser, 27th cen. BCE.

Fig. : Ka statue of Khenu, Fifth Dynasty, ca. 2450 BCE.

Fig. 38: Ka statue of Khenu, 25th cen. BCE.

And just as children/offspring resemble their parents & ancestors, bearing their likeness, or as we often call it, “a spitting image” of an ancestor, children/offspring & their ancestors are referred to as “ka” of each other, for they bear each other’s likeness. Hence why “ka” was used as an ancestral term for hereditary traits in Egypt. In the ancestral context, the Egyptian ka was simply what we today understand as genetics, as the hereditary traits passed on from generation to generation through DNA. The Egyptians obviously were not aware of DNA yet, so they utilized the ka/reflection concept to express that. Thus the Pyramid Texts speak of Osiris as the ka of his father Geb:

O Osiris the King, you are his kȝ.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 176 § 102[56]

Each ka was individual, but also, according to Lanny Bell, the manifestation of a primeval ancestral ka moving from one generation to another of each family line.

Dr. David O. Connor, in Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt[57]

Summing up, one might call the ka he vital energy of men or gods or the ability to function as a person. It must be remarked here that the emphasis is not upon the person as an individual but on the person as a type, entirely in accordance with the fact that in Egyptian literature and art and other Egyptian phenomena it is not the individual but the typical which is stressed. Men and gods have a ka, have a personality structure that they have usually inherited or received from their ancestors. In so far as one would wish to go on ranking the ka among the various conceptions of the soul, the ka is the ancestral soul, the total of hereditary qualities that an individual human has received from the ancestors, his typical personal structure. Hence we can understand that the offering to the dead made especially by the eldest son and members of the family are addressed to the ka of the departed. Children resemble their parents in the structure of their personality. … Elsewhere also ka and ancestor are connected with one another. A wish expressed for the departed is ‘that his hand may be taken by his ka-s, by his fathers’. Gardiner’s descriptions of the ka as ‘fortune’ and ‘position’ become clearer if one considers the ka as ancestor-soul or hereditary structure of the person.

Dr. Herman te Velde, in Concepts of Person in Religion and Thought[58]

When a man sees his likeness in a mirror, he is seeing his ka. When a man sees his likeness in his son and/or his father, he is seeing his ka. When he sees his profile painted by an artist, or a statue of himself carved by a sculptor, he is looking at his own ka. When he sees his picture on his driver’s license, he looking at his ka. Etc. and so on.
Hence the tradition of providing a ka with sustenance. If you happened to walk by a mirror or a pool while eating an apple, you would likewise see your reflection/ka eating an apple as well. Hence it was only natural to conclude that if you ate food then so did your ka. And if the apple you were eating likewise has a ka/reflection seen in the mirror, then providing an apple at the chapel of the deceased provided a ka/reflection of that apple for the deceased’s ka/reflection to eat.

Besides the owner’s Double, the Doubles of the chair he sits on, of the table placed before him and of the food lying on it must exist as well. Does it mean, however, that all the objects on the earth plane have their Doubles? We have already touched upon this question in the preceding chapters and the answer quite logically following from our observations seems to be positive.

Dr. Andrey O. Bolshakov, Man and his Double in Egyptian Ideology of the Old Kingdom[59]

The words ‘for your ka’ are associated both with offering alcohol and with offering mirrors. The phrase ‘for your ka’ might be taken literally, with the mirror being the depository of the soul. Each person has his ka – a part of his soul – and he goes to it when he dies.

Dr. Carolyn Graves-Brown, Dancing for Hathor: Women in Ancient Egypt[60]

This is observed in a relief from the sarcophagus of Queen Kawit at Deir El-Bahari in which a servant pours her a bowl of milk while declaring that it is “For your ka, O mistress.” Kawit then drinks said milk herself, but does so while looking into a mirror.

Kawit drinks milk for her ka- her reflection.

Fig. 39: When Kawit drinks milk, her ka/reflection drinks that milk’s reflection too.

Thus it is no wonder that ka were described with exactly the same physical, bodily, corporeal language as the body was, for it was a reflection of that body. And thus it makes sense for scholars like Dr. Smith to say that the Ka “denotes the complete person, only viewed from a slightly different aspect,” in this case, that different aspect being a mirror and the like.

The double is no incarnation of a certain component of a man, but a complete copy of him as an individual.

Dr. Andrey O. Bolshakov, Man and his Double in Egyptian Ideology of the Old Kingdom[61]

You shall not perish and your ka shall not perish, for you are a ka.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 215 § 149[62]

The king is Ka.

The Loyalist Instruction of the Sehetepibre Stela § II.15[63]

^And that was written in reference to the then reigning, living king Amenemhat III (19th cen. BCE) who, still being alive, was clearly not some incorporeal ghost, yet was still a ka. His ka was HIMSELF, and not “a certain component” of him.
When you see your own reflection, you do not interect with it as though it is a constituent part of you. You do not interact with it as though it is some separate entity from you. And you certainly do not interact with it as though it is your soul or spirit. You interact with it as though it is YOU, your SELF, your complete self, the same self that the rest of the world knows you as. You don’t comb your mirror to change your reflection’s hair, no, you comb YOUR hair. You don’t shave the mirror or scrub toothepaste on the mirror, etc. You do these things to YOURSELF, because that reflection, that image, that ka, is YOU.

The human ka was never represented as a separate figure, because any representation itself is the ka.

Dr. Andrey O. Bolshakov, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Vol. 2[64]

Just as a dead person casts no shadow, so also a dead person casts no reflection in a mirror, i.e. no ka. These things were NOT other modes of existence for a deceased person, they were indicators that they were infact still alive & kicking. If you still cast a shadow, you by default must be alive & moving, rather than decomposed or sealed away in the darkness of a tomb. If you still cast a reflection, you by default must be alive & moving rather than rotted away or locked up in the darkness of a sarcophagus, etc. This is somewhat reminiscent of the more modern legends about how vampires lack a reflection because technically they are dead. Hence an important part of the process of resurrection in ancient Egypt was known as “going to your ka” to retrieve it. “Someone has gone to his ka, Osiris has gone to his ka,” PT Utt. 447 § 826 & 450 § 832. (And that usually involved going to one’s previously departed ancestors to retrieve it,[65] since they were, after all, the genetic source from which you inherited that ka and thus the source to which it returned when released by death.[66]) If you have no ka/reflection then you’re not truly alive, just like a vampire. Hence also why Khnum is portrayed as endowing newborn humans with a reflection/ka when they are created, for without a reflection/ka, life cannot begin and birth cannot take place.

The Ka corresponded with the shadow in the visible world. Like the shadow which cannot be detached from the object, so, too, the Ka or Double is the reflection of the object as it is conceived in the mind. But the Egyptian did not realize that it was only a product of the mind. For him, it was as real and material as the shadow itself; indeed, it was much more material, for it had an independent existence of its own. It could be separated from the object of which it was a facsimile and presentment, and represent it elsewhere. Nay, more than this, it was what gave life and form to the object of which it was the image; it constituted, in fact, its essence and personality.

Dr. Andrey O. Bolshakov, Man and his Double in Egyptian Ideology of the Old Kingdom[67]

The word “mirror” in ancient Egyptian is the same as that for “life.”

Dr. Emily Teeter and Courtney DeNeice Kleinschmidt-Jacobsen, in The Life of Meresamun: A Temple Singer in Ancient Egypt[68]

Fig. : Khnum fashions the infant Hatshepsut and her ka/reflection upon his potter's wheel, after which Heqet endows her with the breath of life; based on a scene from the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir El-Bahri, 15th cen. BCE.

Fig. 40: Khnum fashions the infant Hatshepsut and her ka/reflection upon his potter’s wheel, after which Heqet endows her with the breath of life; based on a scene from the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir El-Bahri, 15th cen. BCE.

Fig. 41: Khnum fashions a child and his ka upon the divine potter's wheel; based on a scene from Luxor.

Fig. 41: Khnum fashions a child and his ka upon the divine potter’s wheel while Hathor endows it with life; based on a scene from Luxor.

The new born prince is presented to Amen after being endowed with a ka/reflection, which is identified as such by the standard above its head (left) bearing the double-arm ka symbol; based on a scene from the Temple of Luxor, 18th Dynasty.

Fig. 42: The new born prince is presented to Amen after being endowed with his own ka/reflection, which is identified as such by the standard above its head (left) bearing the double-arm ka symbol; based on a scene from the Temple of Luxor, 18th Dynasty.

Ka doesn’t merely mean your physical likeness, it can also extend to a likeness of your personality/behavioral traits. Again, this is seen when family members resemble each other in behavior, e.g. when a mother, exasperated with the stubborness of her son, tells him “you’re just like your father!” That is again because he is a ka or reflection of his father. This goes back to the genetic link mentioned earlier. The DNA we inherit from our ancestors not only determines the appearance of our bodies, it also determines the structure of our brains, i.e. our minds.
Hence we will inherit behavioral traits or reflections/ka of our ancestors’ personalities as well. When you look like your ancestors and act like ancestors and live in the same environment as your ancestors, the odds are good that your life will end up following a similar path as your ancestors. Hence the Egyptians often used the word ka in relation to what we would call destiny, fate, fortune, luck, etc. It’s only natural that a king’s son was expected or “destined” to be king of Egypt just like he was. And similar occupations have similar hazards, hence both a father and a son who are king of Egypt might both end up as warmongers, or victims of conspiracies & assination attempts, etc. That similar lifestory or “destiny” of one generation and the next was likewise credited to the transference of the same ka from one generation to the next.

kȝ could designate human individuality as a whole, and in different contexts it could be translated as “character,” “nature,” temperament,” or “disposition.” Since character to a great extent preordains the life of an individual, kȝ also means “destiny,” or “providence.”

Dr. Andrey O. Bolshakov, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Vol. 2[69]

The ka is the most complex concept in the Egyptian idea of the person. The ka has to do with the individual identity of a person, his or her character, and the way character determines the shape and ultimate nature of a person’s life.

Dr. Glenn S. Holland, Gods in the Desert: Religions of the Ancient Near East[70]

By extension of this aspect of the ka as source of one’s behavioural traits, phenomena at large were sometimes associated with a particular person’s ka, because the phenomena was reminiscent of that person’s behavior. For instance, if a king was a very aggressive warmonger hellbent on conquest, then his army or an act of war or a natural disaster might be associated with that particular king’s ka, because of the resemblence (or reflection) between his agressive, destructive nature and destruction caused by those phenomena. Hence the phenomena of strength, prosperity, nourishment, glory, respect, effectiveness, permanence, creativity, magical power, etc. were all said to each be a ka of the god Re.[71]
The king was said to be a ka of all the gods,[72] for he too is divine and thus shares in their nature or likeness. Likewise, all of creation could even be referred to as the king’s ka, since the chief trait of an Egyptian king was his alleged authority over all creation. If the king rules over all creation, and arranges it by his command, then by default that same creation he rules over reflects his traits, just as the America under George W. Bush was a reflection of his leadership and thus was regarded by its citizens as quite a different America than the one under Bill Clinton. Just as popular culture might regard the phrase “America invaded Afghanistan” as essentially synonymous with the phrase “Bush invaded Afghanistan,” so too the ancient Egyptians would’ve regarded a phrase like “the king rules over all creation” as synonymous with “all of creation is his ka.” E.g.:

What you have commanded is everything that occurs.

Marriage Stela of Ramesses II[73]

His ka is everything that exists.

Luxor Inscription of Ramesses II[74]

^Is everything that exists some incorporeal soul or spirit? Hardly. Just reach out & touch the corporeal computer screen you’re reading right now with your corporeal hand of flesh to see that.
In an oversimplified nutshell, the ka concept was an attempt to explain the observed similarity between things, be it physical or abstract. The primary examples of course being the similarity between you & images of you such as your reflection or your profile in artwork, or the similarity between you and your family members. In effect, your ka was you as an archetype.[75]

The ka is «the divine counterpart of the deceased, holding the same relation to him as a word to the conception which it expresses, or a statue to the living man. It was his individuality as embodied in the man’s name, the picture of him which was, or might have been, called up in the minds of those who knew him at the mention of that name»

Dr. Andrey O. Bolshakov, Man and his Double in Egyptian Ideology of the Old Kingdom[76]

So knowing all of this, you can see the folly in ‘pology man’s claim of Osiris that “his ka went on to rule the underworld … when it was over he was still dead. However, his ka was preserved because his body was preserved.”

And yet, as quoted earlier: “Someone has gone to his ka, Osiris has gone to his ka“- Pyramid Texts, Utt. 447 § 826 & 450 § 832[77].

If Osiris is dead yet he is going to his ka, then what, pray tell, is doing the going here?

The ka is his reflection, not his soul or spirit. Thus if Osiris is dead, then when you hold a mirror up to his corpse, his reflection/ka will likewise be dead. This was covered earlier when it was shown that a ka likewise needs to eat. If you are dead, your reflection will be dead. If you rott away into nothing your reflection will likewise vanish as well, and vice-versa (hence the attempts in ancient Egypt to erase certain persons from existence itself by erasing anything that bore their image or name, e.g. Hatshepsut or Akhenaten, etc.[78]). However, on that same point, if your reflection is still alive, then you by default must still be alive. The perpetual existence of one’s ka/reflection served as proof that the person’s khet/body was still alive. As seen in the images of infants being created & given a reflection by Khnum, the reflection was likewise an infant, it was in the same state as the khet, just as when YOU look in a mirror your reflection is the same age and same state of health as you. Osiris’ ka/reflection most certainly did live on after death- only because Osiris’ himself lived on after death because he was physically, bodily resurrected and transfigured into immortality.
Of course, no doubt obstinacy may drive some antagonistic readers here to harp on the children/family-as-ka bit, but that was hardly the usage of the word being employed by ‘pology man. And even then, is Horus, as a ka/reflection/likeness of his father Osiris, some incorporeal ghost? ‘Pology man has stated before elsewhere that Horus was supposed to be the living king reigning on earth, rather than a ka that “went on to rule the underworld.” You just can’t escape it- ka does not equate to a ghost/soul/spirit or some other non-bodily posthumous mode of existence. And the same goes for ba & akh as well.
Now, since the idea itself of an alter-ego(ba ) or a “likeness”(ka) is abstract (like all ideas), as an idea it is technically “non-physical” in that respect, and thus in certain contexts may be fairly referred to as such without contradiction with all of the above. To help grasp this point, the same may be said of a person’s name, for example, the name “Rameses.” A name itself is abstract, it is an idea, and as such is something non-physical, and yet if I say “Rameses was king of Egypt,” I am not saying that a non-physical entity like a name or a disembodied ghost etc. was king of Egypt. Rameses was very much a corporeal entity with a living, physical, biological body.

In synopsis:

Ba is an alter ego/form/hypostasis in which you physically manifest and execute your power, e.g. Superman is the ba of Clark Kent.
Ka is your image/reflection, which is observed in anything bearing your likeness, be it your reflection in a mirror, your profile in artwork (statues, paintings, etc.), photographs or video footage of you, or family members who look and/or act like you, etc.
Shwt is your shadow.[79]
Haty is your heart (as the seat of the cardiovascular system).[80]
Ib is your heart (as the seat of emotion, which we symbolize today with this- ❤. E.g. “she loves him with all her heart,” i.e. she loves him with all her ib).[81]
Khet is your body before death.[82]
Khat is your body after death.[83]
Sah is your body after mummification.[84]
Akh is your body after resurrection & subsequent transfiguration into a divine state.
None of the above=soul or spirit.
The above concepts were merely mistranslated as such by the Egyptologists living in the immediate wake of the decipherment of the Rosetta Stone (setting that trend for the next few generations that followed), because before that the knowledge to translate ancient Egyptian had been lost for around two millennia. Thus the only point of reference those Egyptologists had for interpreting these strange new (to them) concepts was their Western Romanized thinking in which they were born, raised, & educated. But a long time has passed since the Rosetta Stone and now we know better.

So with all of that out of the way, we can now finally proceed on to Osirian resurrection.

Handle Me, and See; for a Spirit hath not Flesh and Bones, as Ye See Me Have

Fig. : Tutankhamun embraces the living body of his ancestor Osiris.

Fig. 43: Tutankhamun embraces the living body of his ancestor Osiris.

Because of the massive ignorance of the above facts and the reliance on outdated translations for these uniquely Egyptian concepts, antagonists (especially on the internet) all too often mistakenly assert that Osiris, and the mummified Egyptians who emulated him, were not believed to have been physically resurrected but instead simply lived on as a disembodied ghost. All of the above debunks that notion, but if you can manage the miracle of getting these obstinate fools to begrudgingly acknowledge as much, many of them have a tendency to then fall into kettle logic and claim that Osiris might have had some manner of physicality in his posthumous existence but that it was all exclusively confined to the underworld in which Osiris & the deceased were to forever remain with no possibility of escape, and most certainly never to return to this world of the living, and definitely never to return here in their physical bodies.

But alas, this too is debunked by the primary sources and more updated scholarship, as shall be seen. The sequence of resurrection in ancient Egypt was mummification of the corpse, burial in a tomb HERE ON EARTH which involved magical rituals, physical resurrection of that same mummified corpse which had died (a resurrection which thus took place within that tomb HERE ON EARTH), and then the magical departure of that same body from its tomb HERE ON EARTH WHERE IT RESURRECTED to ultimately ascend into heaven & passover into the netherworld.

These inscriptions are called the ‘Pyramid Texts.’ They are spells that deal primarily with three stages in a king’s resurrection: (1) his awakening in the pyramid; (2) his ascending through the sky to the netherworld; and (3) his admittance into the company of the gods.

Dr. Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic[85]

The deceased kings resurrected in their tombs/pyramids, and it is common knowledge that those tombs & pyramids, many of which are still standing today, are located right here on earth. Only then, after they had already resurrected here, do they then travel to the netherworld. Therein they dwelt by CHOICE and NOT by duress. For contrary to what antagonists allege, Osiris & the deceased could & did return to the world of the living HERE ON EARTH, as I cover thoroughly in The Perennial Gospel pp.478-86 & 501-06.

So it is quite amusing to see such antagonists stick their feet in their mouths with dubious statements like the following (sadly, some of them are actually competent scholars in OTHER fields irrelevant to Egyptology):

Osiris died and stayed dead.

The traditional Egyptian belief was that the body must be preserved and/or an icon of the body provided in order to assure they would continue their journey to the afterlife. There was, however, no belief they would one day return to reclaim their restored body on a restored creation.

“A bodily resurrection for Osiris had been exposed as erroneous.”

Osiris doesn’t get resurrected. He doesn’t rise from the dead. … Osiris doesn’t come back among the living. … Horus- he doesn’t raise him from the dead. … It has nothing to do with him rising again, it doesn’t happen that way. … So Osiris does not join the living, he stays dead.

“Osiris didn’t actually raise [sic] from the dead but remained burried [sic] and ruled in the abode of the dead.”
“He was a dead god, not a living/resurrected one.”

Osiris did not return to earth IN HIS RESURRECTED BODY. Osiris’ body was dismembered and REMAINED IN PIECES, while his DISEMBODIED SOUL sometimes came to earth.

Osiris did NOT resurrect back to earth according to the myth … We discovered that there is no tradition to support Mr. Till’s thesis that Osiris’ followers believed that he bodily rose for a period of time here on earth. All indications are that Osiris’ reanimation was limited to the land of the dead (duat) in the minds of his followers.

Osiris did not rise … His body did not rise from the dead.

The Egyptians did not believe in a bodily resurrection from the dead. Nonetheless, separate aspects of a person’s personality—or, as some have interpreted them, separate modes of a person—were believed to remain active after death, even though the person’s corpse remained in the tomb.

“What, for example, is the proof that Osiris … returned to life on earth by being raised from the dead? In fact no ancient source says any such thing about Osiris.”
“In my reading of the myth of Osiris, he does not rise from the dead back to life here on earth. … Literally, he came ‘from Hades’. But this is not a resurrection of his body. His body is still dead.”
“How do we know Osiris is not raised physically? His body is still a corpse, in a tomb.”
“My views do not rest on having read a single article by Jonathan Z. Smith and a refusal to read the primary sources. As I read them, there is no resurrection of the body of Osiris. And that is the standard view among experts in the field.”


Oh, really? Let’s just take a look at what many “experts in the field” have to say on the matter of Osiris and Egyptian resurrection of the body. One of the afore-cited heathen was so kind as to define for us just what a real resurrection entails- “the body which DIED was the same body which was RAISED, and that the person returned to life IN THEIR ORIGINAL BODY.” I have no problem with that, nor would any ancient Egyptian, and thus nor should any “experts in the field.” That being the case, I shall begin first with the physical, corporeal, biological, bodily nature of this resurrection, and afterwards shall cover the location of occurrence (i.e. here on earth). To start us off, there is the aforementioned Egyptologist, Professor Bob Brier, also known as Mr. Mummy. “In 1994, Dr. Brier became the first person in 2,000 years to mummify a human cadaver in the ancient Egyptian style.”[86] He is one of the world’s foremost experts on the subject of ancient Egyptian mummification.[87] So if there is anyone who can explain mummification, what the Egyptians believed about it, and why they practiced it, that person is Dr. Brier. He states:

The Book of the Dead is the most important of all Egyptian religious texts. Its main goal was to protect and reanimate the mummy for continued existence in the next world. It was actually called The Going Forth by Day because it was intended to enable the deceased to get up again and resume activities. … Aside from general hymns, specific spells described words to be spoken over the mummy at the time of burial, and because the Egyptians were resurrectionists, it was important that the body was intact and functioning. Of all the spells reanimating the body , perhaps the most important was the Opening of the Mouth ceremony.

Dr. Bob Brier, in Mummies Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Mummies in History, Religion, and Popular Culture[88]

There were two aspects to the preparation of a body for eternity—the physical and the magical. At the same time various physical stages of preparation were being completed, magical rites were enacted. Only a prescribed combination of the two could preserve the body for eternity. To fully understand the rites of mummification, one must know the Egyptian myth of the god Osiris, who is the archetype of all mummies.

Dr. Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic[89]

So now this comes back around to Osiris specifically.

[Isis] hovered over Osiris’ body and brought him back to life by saying magical words. From this myth came the practice of mummification. The Egyptians were preoccupied with the dead body and with the notion that it must be intact and have a proper burial for resurrection. Even the practice of burying the dead in anthropoid coffins may have come from the part of the myth about the chest constructed to Osiris’ measurement. Osiris, who achieved immortality, became the god of the dead, and all Egyptians wished to join him. This is why in the Book of the Dead and in other magical spells dealing with the dead the deceased is often called Osiris or his name is joined with that of Osiris (for example, Osiris-Ani). This is so that the deceased, too, will resurrect.


Isis hovers over a complete body. Finally, and most important, she speaks the proper words and he resurrects. He retains the same body he inhabited while alive.

Dr. Bob Brier, Egyptian Mummies: Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Art[90]

Read that again. Let it really sink in.

He retains the same body he inhabited while alive. Mummification thus becomes essential to immortality; the body must be preserved for the afterlife.


It doesn’t get any more explicit than that. What was it again which one of the afore-cited antagonists claimed? Ah yes, it was “there is no resurrection of the body of Osiris. And that is the standard view among experts in the field.” Yet here we have a bona fide expert in the field stating precisely the opposite. Osiris, and the deceased who identified with him, did indeed resurrect bodily from the dead. Some readers might retort “but that’s only one scholar- big deal.” Very well then, as the old saying goes- “there’s plenty more where that came from.”

Once at the tomb the major rite performed was the ritual of the Opening of the Mouth. This was designed originally to activate statues and bring them to life but was later also transferred to the treatment of coffins and mummies, which, for ritual purposes, amounted to the same thing. Its function in the mortuary cult was the all-important restoration of bodily functions to the deceased such as speech, sight, hearing, and smell so that the inanimate corpse was converted once more into a living being. From this point it enjoyed the corporeal attributes needed to take the deceased through the journey to the afterlife and maintain them there in the fullness of their earthly being.

Dr. Alan B. Lloyd, Ancient Egypt: State and Society[91]

So again, bodily resurrection occurred in the tomb, which was here on earth, and THEN from that point they journeyed to the afterlife. Keeping with that theme:

The mummy rite turned around two themes: the animation or reanimation of the statue or mummy (opening the mouth, eyes, ears and nose, knitting together the bones, assembling the limbs, attaching the head, establishing the heart in its place), and purification and presentation of offerings (food, drink, clothing) to ensure the continued survival of the newly (re)animated being. The bodily members of the deceased were believed to be reconstituted and revivified and he was allowed to travel to the Land of the Dead.

Dr. Gregory Glazov, The Bridling of the Tongue and the Opening of the Mouth in Biblical Prophecy[92]

In the Egyptian funerary world, the dead can retain frequent contact with the world of the living through post-funerary rites, since he can be resurrected within his body. In general, death and resurrection are two basic components of the Egyptian culture.

Dr. Kyriakos Savvopoulos, Alexandrea in Agypto: The Role of the Egyptian Tradition in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods[93]

^Now recall what I had stated earlier about how resurrected Egyptiansincluding Osiris, whom they emulatedwere in fact believed to be able to leave the netherworld and physically return to the world of the living here on earth. Continuing:

Horus, having resurrected his father, adorned him with the fillet, and defeated his enemies; Osiris is free to leave the Underworld. … The ba of Osiris enters into the disk, which in turn illuminates and revivifies the corpse of Osiris. The proper use of the ‘Great Decree’ will enable Osiris to ‘manifest over his own corpse,’ an allusion to this ability of Re to resurrect his physical remains through the light of his disk.

Dr. Colleen Manassa, The Late Egyptian Underworld: Sarcophagi and Related Texts from the Nectanebid Period[94]

Osiris comes back to life to become not only the ruler of the underworld but also a model for all the deceased.Osiris’s fate incorporates both the weakness and the triumph of the physical. The material body disintegrates into dust, but the annual rebirth seen in nature each spring bears witness to the body’s ultimate triumph over death. The belief that the body lives on after death is one of the most salient features of Egyptian conceptions of the hereafter.

Dr. Erik Hornung, Idea into Image: Essays on Ancient Egyptian Thought[95]

At the beginning of the upper register, Isis and Nephthys lift the body of Osiris to initiate his resurrection.

Dr. Erik Hornung, The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife[96]

Here at Abydos, for the first time we see the idea of resurrection. They had an idea already developed of physical resurrection, which became so important.

Dr. Günter Dreyer, in National Geographic Special: Egyptian Underworld[97]

It is well known that the concept of life in the hereafter is based on the physical resurrection of the mummy, the preservation of the individual consciousness, (called by the Book of the Dead “knowing one’s name”) and of the family.

Dr. Maya Müller, in Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta: Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Egyptologists, Volume II[98]

Pyramid Texts are carved in vertical columns in sunk relief. They are frequently painted green or blue-green, alluding to the Osirian colour of rebirth, as well as to the sky to which the king ascends when he enters the eternal divine realm and becomes identified with Osiris. The spells are to aid the king in his ascent to the sky and to his reception into the kingdom of the gods. There are three main types of utterances: protective spells that keep the king safe from scorpions, snakes and other dangerous creatures; spells for the deceased to use in the Afterworld when using boats, ladders, etc. to travel safely; and the last set of incantations which is associated with the execution of funerary rituals, such as the Opening of the Mouth, a ritual that reanimates the mummy and restores its senses.
The lector priest would recite magical spells and prayers, while touching the mummy’s nose, mouth, eyes, ears and chest, thereby restoring its five senses. Once the mummy was reanimated it joined the mourners for one last time in a funerary feast, equivalent to a wake. …
Opening of the Mouth: Ceremony which served to reanimate the corpse.

Dr. Salima Ikram, Death and Burial in Ancient Egypt[99]

It was essential that the mummies of the deceased continued to function just as they had in life. … The Opening of the Mouth ritual continues to be a fascinating topic of study, as it reveals much about the religion of the ancient Egyptians. It shows their desire to reanimate the body to provide the deceased with offerings in the afterlife.

Marissa A. Stevens, Mummies Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Mummies in History, Religion, and Popular Culture[100]

Isis, the devoted wife of Osiris whose body she reconstituted and restored after death, was the divine patroness of magicians.

Dr. Ann Rosalie David, in Egyptian Mummies and Modern Science[101]

It was the power of Ra’s name that allowed Isis to return Osiris’s reassembled body to life. … The body was preserved so that the entire person—body, name, shadow, ba, and ka—would survive and enjoy blessedness in the realm of the dead. … Part of the preparation of the tomb, at least from the New Kingdom onward, was the “Opening of the Mouth” ceremony. This ritual was among the most ancient and important in Egypt, since it made it possible for something to live, or in the case of the dead body, to live again. … Belief in divine recompense after death also necessitated a belief in resurrection, the return of the body to life. … The Egyptians believed the self could not exist in any real sense apart from the body—this was why those in Sheol were mere shadows. “Life” in any real sense necessarily meant the life enjoyed as an embodied person. In the resurrection, the shades of those chosen to “awake … to everlasting life” would be reunited with their dead bodies, bodies given life once again by the divine breath/spirit. … But what can we say about the religious influence of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Syria-Palestine at the beginning of the first century BCE, before the Roman conquest? Perhaps most important, the goddess Isis became the central deity of a mystery religion more widespread than any other in the ancient Mediterranean world. The relevant aspects of Isis’s divine character for her mystery rituals were first her role in Osiris’s death and resurrection and second her protection of Horus, both as a child and in his contests with Seth. Together these mythic roles represented Isis’s power over life and death.

Dr. Glenn S. Holland, Gods in the Desert: Religions of the Ancient Near East[102]

The corporeal resurrection of the deceased comes about when the ba visits the tomb and unites itself with the mummy. … When the sun-god shines in the darkness and speaks his creative word the sarcophagi or shrines are opened and the mummies arise from their sleep of death. They throw off the mummy-bandages that had protected them and take food and clothing and all that was necessary in the new life. … Mummy-bindings had to be removed at the moment of resurrection. Mummification prepared the body for resurrection in the Underworld and protected it in its journey to that mysterious space. Mummy-bindings were both protective attire for the “space traveler” and, at the same time, the bonds of death. They may be called the bonds of Seth, because Seth was the god of death, who brought death into the world by murdering Osiris. The thoroughness with which the Egyptians are wrapped makes understandable such special prayers as the one written on a coffin in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, directing the goddess Isis to free the mummy from its wrappings at the moment of resurrection. …
Corporeal resurrection was not restricted to the privileged members of the elite who were buried with all the ritual pomp and circumstance on earth and who were mummified. …
Textual evidence indicates that those who were not mummified on earth could also repeat life in the Underworld. At the word of the sun-god they also arose bodily from the dead.

Dr. Herman Te Velde, in Mummies & Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt[103]

Osiris provided a model whereby the effects of the rupture caused by death could be totally reversed, since that deity underwent a twofold process of resurrection. Mummification reconstituted his “corporeal” self and justification against Seth his “social” self, re-integrating him and restoring his status among the gods. Through the mummification rites, which incorporated an assessment of the deceased’s character, the Egyptians hoped to be revived and justified like Osiris. These rites endowed them with their own personal Osirian aspect or form, which was a mark of their status as a member of the god’s entourage in the underworld. Thus the deceased underwent a twofold resurrection as well. Not only were their limbs reconstituted, and mental and physical faculties restored, but they entered into a personal relationship with Osiris that simultaneously situated them within a group. … On the one hand, he joins the retinue of Osiris’s worshipers; on the other, through the efficacy of the mummification rites, which reconstitute his corporeal and social selves, he follows in Osiris’s footsteps by undergoing the same twofold process of resurrection previously undergone by that god.
The Egyptian conception of the individual, although essentially monistic, nevertheless comprised two elements: a corporeal self and a social self. Death destroyed the integrity of both, and in order for the deceased to return to full life, both had to be reconstituted. It was not sufficient for a dead person to recover the use of his mental and physical faculties; he had to undergo a process of social reintegration as well, being accepted among the hierarchy of gods and blessed spirits in the afterlife. With corporeal and social “connectivity” thus restored, he acquired a new Osirian form. In this form the deceased enjoyed not only the benefits of bodily rejuvenation, but also the fruits of a relationship with a specific deity that simultaneously situated him within a group.

Dr. Mark J. Smith, in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology[104]

Three basic conceptions underlie all ancient Egyptian beliefs and practices concerning the afterlife. This applies to the Graeco-Roman Period as well as earlier periods of Egyptian history. The first conception is that of the continued survival of those who die as physical or corporeal entities. … The first of these conceptions explains why the Egyptians were so concerned to preserve the bodies of their dead. By themselves, the sands and the hot, dry climate of Egypt were effective preserving agents. However, the Egyptians developed elaborate techniques of embalming or mummification to further the desired end. …
Because the Egyptians believed that the deceased survived in corporeal form, they felt it necessary to make provision for their daily needs. From their point of view, the nature of posthumous existence was the same, in its practical aspects at least, as that of life before death. … Resurrection in Graeco-Roman Egypt was a bodily resurrection, and it was accomplished chiefly by means of rituals and operations actually performed on the body. …
It will be clear from the survey presented above that body and resurrection were closely linked in Graeco-Roman Egypt. The resurrection in which the Egyptians believed was a bodily resurrection, involving a physical entity which had been justified, that is examined and declared to be free of sin.

Dr. Mark J. Smith, in The Human Body in Death and Resurrection[105]

In Egyptian mortuary belief, Osiris was the proto-type of every deceased individual. Everyone would become Osiris in death and be endowed with life by Isis. … Isis was the goddess of physical restoration. All her life-giving actions were aimed at the body and its vitality … with the result that the body of Osiris, restored and brought back to life, represents the entirety of the land of Egypt.

Dr. Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt[106]

How fascinating that the body of Osiris also symbolically represented the kingdom of Egypt, akin to how a certain (MUCH later) religion claimed that the body of its founder likewise symbolized the kingdom of heaven. Thus it could’ve equally been said of the ancient Egyptians that “Now ye are the body of Osiris, and members in particular.” Anyway, moving along:

The ancient solar mystery of Osiris and Re becoming one [was] the prototype of human resurrection.

Dr. John C. Darnell, The Enigmatic Netherworld Books of the Solar-Osirian Unity[107]

This union of ba and corpse produced resurrection, just as the uniting of the sun god and Osiris in the underworld each night rejuvenated both gods. On account of this doctrine, it was essential that the corpse should be transformed through mummification into an eternal, perfect body which could be reunited with the ba.

Dr. John H. Taylor, Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt[108]

The three sarcophagi all display essentially the same design scheme, with a uniform distribution of texts that tell of the function of the sarcophagus as an agent of bodily resurrection. … The texts from the three sarcophagi, largely parallel in both content and placement, stress themes that enhance the process of physical resurrection. … Mummification in itself entailed a mythological reference to the resurrection of Osiris.

Dr. Lana Troy, in Thutmose III: A New Biography[109]

In mythology, Isis, the wife of Osiris, and Nephthys, his sister, searched for the body of Osiris after he had been murdered by Seth. When they had found it, they restored Osiris to life.

Dr. Lorna Oakes and Lucia Gahlin, Ancient Egypt[110]

Since Isis and Nephthys mourned the dead Osiris before bringing him back to life, the presence of these goddesses identified the deceased with Osiris, thus guaranteeing his resurrection … Tutankhamun’s successor, King Ay, is shown performing the ‘opening of the mouth’ ritual on the royal mummy in order to reanimate the body.

Dr. Gay Robins, The Art of Ancient Egypt: Revised Edition[111]

Just as Osiris was killed and rose to new life, so the dead king, identified with Osiris, through the recitation of the spell is made alive again. In other words, what we have here is the bodily resurrection of the dead king. …
The mythological revivification of Osiris by the goddess Nut, known from the Pyramid Texts, is here applied to the deceased Nebseny, the gesture of “spreading over” the body of the deceased indicating the act of revivification. Other texts, especially those of the later period, speak of “making to live,” “animating” (sˁnḫ), the corpse, just as they speak of animating the Ba, the Akh, the heart, the Ka, and the Shadow. Thus it can be said that the Egyptian believed that the corpse could be revivified, a belief which was undoubtedly based upon a ritual identification with the revivification of Osiris. If in its transit from the temporal existence the body was ritually revivified, the Egyptian knew no final death. Should this restoration of the body fail to be achieved, the body would remain an inanimate corpse and would suffer the fatal “second death.” A special spell, chapter 44 of the Book of the Dead, was provided to save the deceased from this final destruction. A passage in the Coffin Texts read: “I am risen as king of the gods and I shall not die again.” Primitive man never considered death a natural or normal event. The Egyptian of the mortuary literature denied the sting of death and continued to live not because he believed in the existence of an “immortal soul,” a thought which could appeal to the Greek mind but could not satisfy the aspirations of the man on the Nile, but because all of his faculties, physical as well as psychic, continued to exist; he lived eternally as a man, in the fullest meaning of the word.

Dr. Louis V. Žabkar, A Study of the Ba Concept in Ancient Egyptian Texts[112]

After the resurrection the body can function again and eat the food. Without this resurrection the body is powerless and suffers hunger and thirst. … The rigidity of death is finished. The body functions again. … The dead wishes the mummy bandages to be loosed in order to be free to execute the functions of his body. “The bandages which are on my intestines are opened.” The mummy bandage is thrown off, so that the dead may rise.

Dr. Jan Zandee, Death as an Enemy: According to Ancient Egyptian Conceptions[113]

So no, clearly it is NOT the case that “there is no resurrection of the body of Osiris. And that is the standard view among experts in the field.” Things are quite the opposite, in fact. And these scholars have no choice but to acknowledge that Osirian resurrection in ancient Egypt was believed to be a physical, corporeal, biological resurrection of the same body which had died and which took place in the tomb HERE ON EARTH– for the primary sources time & time again declare as much with absolutely no ambiguity or “room for interpretation.”

Fig. 44:

Fig. 44: If the so-called “soul” is roosting in the tree to the left, then clearly what is rising from the bier to new life is not the “soul,” but is actually the body.

Fig. 45:

Fig. 45

Fig. 46:

Fig. 46: The resurrected Osiris regains his bodily senses, such as smell.

Fig. 47:

Fig. 47: The resurrected Osiris getting ready to lift himself up off his bier.

Fig. 48:

Fig. 48: Osiris rises, yet there’s no inert body still lying on the bier beneath him as he rises, because this is not some soul leaving a body- it is Osiris rising in his body.

Fig. 49:

Fig. 49

Fig. 50:

Fig. 50

Fig. 51:

Fig. 51: Horus helps the fully risen Osiris stand up on his feet, an odd thing to do if Osiris were just some incorporeal ghost here, which, of course, he is not.

Now I shall first quote primary sources (which I for one actually have read many times) concerning the physical, bodily nature of Osirian resurrection, and then afterwards will go over (even more) sources demonstrating that the location of that bodily resurrection was here on earth. I reiterate that the setting was here on earth, so that you the reader will bear that in mind as you read the following texts.

Osiris awakes, the languid god wakes up, the god stands up, the god has power in his body.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 690 § 2092[114]

That’s quite explicit and concise. No ambiguity about it. In fact, other religions have claimed bodily resurrection of their own deity based on scriptures even less explicit than that. For example, in the Ehrman’s former religion, the most explicit scripture (of the very few examples) I’ve been able to find so far which specifically portrays that deity as resurrecting in his body is the one which says- Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” But he was speaking of the temple of his body. O how that religion would love to have a passage in their canon so explicit as “The Lord awakes, the languid one wakes up, the Son of God stands up, the Lord has power in His body,” but alas, there is no passage in their canon of such quality to compete with PT § 2092 and many of the other funerary texts to come. And if they were so fortunate as to have a passage like that in their scriptures, you know damn well they would take it to mean exactly what it says it means and use it as evidence of their deity’s bodily resurrection (as they should) rather than ignore it and claim that his body was merely preserved while his disembodied soul went on to reign in the afterlife (as they’ve dubiously claimed of Osiris).

Both in quality AND in quantity, the scriptures about this dude’s bodily resurrection are FAR inferior to the ancient Egyptian primary texts about Osiris’ bodily resurrection here on earth. If someone proposed something as ridiculous as, akin to what antagonists have claimed, that this dude’s dead body just needed to be protected so that he could be raised over in the afterlife rather than here on earth, that person should be expected to show us where in this dude’s scriptures they are getting such a strange idea from and how they reconcile that with passages like the one quoted above (“temple of his body”) which unambiguously describe a bodily resurrection here on earth. Likewise, antagonists should be expected to do the same with their similar dubious claims about Osirian resurrection.

Anyway, to really get this section rolling, I think it’ll be most amusing & pwn worthy to start with the texts that most directly contradict the statement from the very blog which provoked this Mythicism article (i.e. “Osiris does not rise to his former state and go on living“).

O Osiris the King, stand up! Horus has caused you to stand up … You shall come to your former condition, for the gods have knit together your face for you.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 369 § 640-43[115]

So evidently, Osiris most certainly DID “rise to his former state.” The Coffin Texts likewise stated-

Geb will open for you your blind eyes, he will straighten for you your bent knees, there will be given to you your heart (ỉb) which you had from your mother, your heart (ḥȝty) which belongs to your body, your soul which was upon earth, your corpsewhich was upon the ground. There will be bread for your body, water for your throat, and sweet air for your nostrils. The owners of tombs will be kindly to you, the owners of coffins will come to you, they will bring to you your members which were far from you, when you are re-established in your original shape.

Coffin Texts, Spell 20 I, 56-58[116]

So that leaves no ambiguity. The “former shape,” the “former condition,” the “original shape” Osiris had prior to death IS that of his living physical body. A body complete with eyes that can see, knees that can walk, a heart that beats, a body that eats bread, a throat that drinks water, nostrils that breathe, etc. Of course, it’s more concisely stated again in the following-

Raise yourself [in] your shape, for that is your body.

Coffin Texts, Spell 847 VII, 51[117]

Hi, Osiris. Thou renewest thy youth, thou renewest thy youth, forever and ever in thy rejuvenation, in thy rejuvenation, Osiris, in the sky. Thou dawnest in the eastern Horizon of the Sky. … Thou resumest thy form of yesterday.

Book of the Dead, Spell 162 variant S 2 (16th cen. BCE)[118]

^Again keeping with the theme that Osiris was restored to his “former shape”/”former condition”/”original shape” he had before death, which was his living body.

But he was not merely restored to his original state, he also went on to surpass it-

The (re)assembled (members) (of Osiris N.) surpass, they surpass his original state.

Book of the Dead, Spell 161 S 4[119]

And this makes sense, for as covered earlier, after resurrection the body is transfigured to a glorified, divine state. Anyway, continuing…

Usher him in to me, uncover for him my injured privy parts, I let him see my wounds—so says Osiris.

Coffin Texts, Spell 36 I, 142[120]

The talk of showing the wounds of Osiris’ slain body reminds me of another story in which an alleged resurrected deity likewise told a certain “doubting” follower of his to come and see the wounds of his risen body as firsthand proof that the resurrection actually occurred, and that he was not just some disembodied ghost.

Come, let us lament Osiris since he is far from us. Rise, rise in the morning now that you are a mummy.

Coffin Texts, Spell 52 I, 243[121]

So, yet again, it is the mummy that rises- the physical body which had died.

Hail to you, my father Osiris … I put your heart into your body for you, that you may remember what you have forgotten.

Coffin Texts, Spell 62, I 265[122]

Awake, Osiris … Raise yourself in your name of ‘Raiser’, stand up in your name of ‘Stander’, receive your head and be glad.

Coffin Texts, Spell 67, I 282-87[123]

The head’s a body part.

Stand up on your intact feet … Live, Osiris!

Coffin Texts, Spell 74 I, 312-13[124]

I gather the bones of Osiris together and I make his flesh to flourish daily, I make his limbs hale daily.

Coffin Texts, Spell 80 II, 42[125]

May you have power in your heart (ỉb), may you have power in your heart (ḥȝty), may you have power in your arms, may you have power in your legs.

Coffin Texts, Spell 225 III, 222-24[126]

They remove the dimness of your sight and the wrinkles which are on your limbs; they open your blind eyes, they extend your contracted fingers.

Coffin Texts, Spell 226 III, 254-56[127]

May your head be raised, may your heart live, may you possess your flesh … on your body, may you ever be in the Following, may you live.

Coffin Texts, Spell 230 III, 298[128]

May your head be raised, may your brow be made to live, may you speak for your own body, may you be a god, may you always be a god.

Coffin Texts, Spell 232 III, 300[129]

You have your legs; lift up your body, gather your members together, that you may tread out the paces to the tribunal, to the place where the gods are, that they may give you the fluid which issued from you. May you never be inert, having it.

Coffin Texts, Spell 235 III, 302[130]

I have come that I may restore ‹my› body, ease ‹my› wounds and cover up ‹my› portal because of what is in it.

Coffin Texts, Spell 239 III, 322[131]

My is with ‹me›, I have power in my body.

Coffin Texts, Spell 240 III, 324[132]

I am Osiris; I have come to Rostau in order to know the secret of the Netherworld into which Anubis is initiated. My mouth is split open, my eyes are split open, I am made a sȝẖtw, my members are gathered together.

Coffin Texts, Spell 241 III, 325-26[133]

Come, raise yourself, O Lord of walls, seek out the Lady of Dep, stir up the living body, go to and fro in the sight of the plebs.

Coffin Texts, Spell 379 V, 43[134]

So again, Osiris & the resurrected deceased were NOT confined to the netherworld. Here it is stated that he could & did travel about in in the city of Dep (a city HERE, on earth, in the world of the living) in plain sight of its plebs, and in his “living body,” of course.

My head has been brought to me, my bones have been gathered together, my members have been made hale for me, and my great magic power has been brought to me with it, I being hale; the offerings for the mouth have been made, the hair has been put together.

Coffin Texts, Spell 392 V, 66[135]

May you make me hale, may you make my flesh hale, may you make my members hale, may you grant supports for my bones.

Coffin Texts, Spell 407 V, 222-24[136]

I have seen what was restored for me as Osiris, may there not be distension(?) in my flesh.

Coffin Texts, Spell 451 V, 320[137]

My bones have been given to me by those who are in Djedu, my members have been strengthened by those who are in Khem, my bones have been brought to me, my members have been raised up.

Coffin Texts, Spell 456 V, 328-29[138]

Djedu and Khem were cities in Egypt, here on earth in the world of the living, and thus it was in this world of the living that this resurrection was thought to have taken place.

Raise yourself upon your iron bones and [golden] flesh flesh, for this [body] of yours belongs to a god; it will not grow mouldy, it will not putrefy, it will not be destroyed. [The warmth which is on your mouth is] that which issued from the nostrils of Seth, and the winds of the sky will be destroyed if the warmth which is on your mouth is destroyed; [The sky] will be deprived [of] the stars if the warmth which is on your mouth is lacking. May your flesh be born to life, and may your life be [more than] the life of the stars in their season of life.

Coffin Texts, Spell 519 VI, 108-09[139]

I am Isis, and I have come that I may lay hold of you and that [I] may place your heart in your body [for] you.

Coffin Texts, Spell 526 VI, 118-19[140]

I possess my heart, [I have] power [in it], and it will forbid what has been done to me. I am one having strength in my own members, and my heart will obey me, [for I am] its [lord], and it is in [this] body of mine.

Coffin Texts, Spell 715 VI, 345[141]

Your libation is poured by Isis, Nephthys cleanses you, (even) your two sisters great of magic. Your bones are knit together for you, your members are collected for you, your eyes are set in your face for you.

Coffin Texts, Spell 754 VI, 384[142]

The members in Osiris are inert, but ‹they› shall not be inert.

Coffin Texts, Spell 755 VI, 384[143]

Isis has come so that she may cause air to go forth, for she wants it to enter into the holes which are in your , head, so that you may live and speak to her.

Coffin Texts, Spell 777 VI, 41[144]

My heart is assessed, my members are gathered together; I am raised up thereby, you being alive for ever(?). I am one profitable of speech who went forth from Geb.

Coffin Texts, Spell 830 VII, 31[145]

Your father Geb will open his doors for you. … You shall have power in your body, the doors shall be turned back, and the gates of the tomb shall be opened.

Coffin Texts, Spell 834 VII, 35[146]

Kick him in your name of Orion, for Horus will capture Seth in order to raise up your [corpse] bearing this staff(?).”

Coffin Texts, Spell 838 VII, 40[147]

Your soul being WITHIN you and your feet being in your place, you being renewed and young.

Coffin Texts, Spell 840 VII, 45[148]

Your mother comes to you; see, Nut has come so that she may join your bones together, knit up your SINEWS, make your members firm, take away your corruption and take hold of your HAND, so that you may live in your name ‘Living One’. May you live for ever!

Coffin Texts, Spell 850 VII, 54[149]

Take the Eye of Horus which combines your flesh and pulls together your members … take what is in the Mansion of Ptah, for it will join you together; may your limbs not be weak, may the languor of faintness not be in you.

Coffin Texts, Spell 862 VII, 65-66[150]

To make Osiris’s neck firm for him. Hail to you, my father Osiris Onnophris! I have come so that I may protect you, that I may make [your] members comfortable for you, that I may knit on [your face for you(?)], that I may make your [neck firm for] you, that I may make your flesh strong, that [I may cause] your skin [to be permanent(?) … your neck] will be made firm … [your flesh] is hale.]

Coffin Texts, Spell 876 VII, 85-87[151]

I place your heart in your body for you, for you are Osiris … and you are powerful and able(?).

Coffin Texts, Spell 917 VII, 120[152]

O Osiris … I will come and bring you your feet and your testicles; I give you the efflux which issued from you, and by means of it you will not be inert.

Coffin Texts, Spell 936 VII, 139[153]

I have restored Osiris to health. … I have seen what I have restored to health in Osiris, so do not mourn(?) over his flesh.

Coffin Texts, Spell 1036-37 VII, 284-86, Spell 1148 VII, 498-99[154]

As for Osiris … every limb of his is in the place which they reached. The limb of his which he allots to his semblance(?) are necessary.

Coffin Texts, Spell 1119, VII 451-52[155]

Breathe the refreshing breath of the north wind, having ascended in the sky in attendance on’ the living disk, thy body protected and thy heart glad. No harm shall happen to thy body, for thou art sound; thy flesh shall not decay. Follow the disk (from the time) when he dawns in the morning until his setting in life takes place. (There shall be) water for thy heart, bread for thy belly, raiment to clothe thy body.

Book of the Dead, Spell 6C S 1[156]

He opens my closed eyes, he straightens my crooked feet. Anubis has strengthened my knees that indeed support me. … I perceive with my heart, I control [my breast]. I control my hands, I control my feet.

Book of the Dead, Spell 26 b S 2-4[157]

I have my heart and control it. It shall not tell what I have done. I am one who controls his own members. Obey me, my heart, (for) I am thy lord while thou art in my body.

Book of the Dead, Spell 27 S 3[158]

I am put together, renewed, and rejuvenated. I am Osiris.

Book of the Dead, Spell 43 b S[159]

I control my heart, [I] control my breast. I control my hands, I control my feet. I control mortuary offerings. I control water, I control [air]. I control the flood, I control the river, I control the shores. I control them that act against me, both male and female, in the god’s domain; I control them that commanded to act against me (on earth). (I) lift (myself) from (my) left side, (I put myself) on (my) right side; (I) lift myself from (my) right side and put myself in a sitting position, that (I) may stand and shake off my dust. My tongue (adheres) to me as a clever guide.

Book of the Dead, Spell 68 S 5-6[160]

Thy head is attached to thee, Osiris; made fast to thee is thy neck, Osiris. Thy heart rejoices, since thy wish abides.

Book of the Dead, Spell 78 S 15[161]

O Osiris … Come at thy setting, powerful in thy Body.

Book of the Dead, Spell 142 T var.[162]

I may perform the the purification of Osiris. (I) have saved him as a justified one; (I have) united (for him) his bones and assembled (for him) his members.

Book of the Dead, Spell 147 g S 4-5[163]

(Osiris N.,) raise thyself from thy right side, raise thyself from thy left side. Geb opens for thee thy blind eyes, he straightens thy crooked feet. Given thee is thy heart of (thy) mother, thy breast of thy body.

Book of the Dead, Spell 169 a S 2[164]

(O) Osiris N., (I) have given thee thy flesh, (I have) put together for thee thy bones, I have assembled for thee thy members. (Shake off) for thyself the earth that adheres to thy flesh.

Book of the Dead, Spell 170 S 1[165]

Spell for setting upright the corpse, [opening] the eyes, strengthening the ears, and making fast the head put in its place.

Book of the Dead, Spell 178 P[166]

Thy son Horus is thy savior. He does away with all the evil that clings to thee, binding to thee thy flesh, assembling for thee thy members, uniting for thee thy bones, bringing thee [thy heart from the gods that are in the nether world]. Pray raise thyself, Osiris. (I) have given thee thy arms; I cause thee to stand, alive forever, and Geb wipes for thee thy mouth. The great Ennead has saved thee.

Book of the Dead, Spell 181c S 3[167]

(Book) for causing Osiris to endure, giving breath to the Weary-hearted One … I have given the refreshing breath of the north wind to Osiris-Unnofer as when he came forth from the womb of (her) who bore him. I cause Re to set as Osiris, Osiris having set as Re. I cause him to enter the secret pit to revive the breast of the Weary-hearted One.

Book of the Dead, Spell 182 18th-21st dynasties P 1, a S 2[168]

O Osiris, may thy Heart be joyous, (thou) whom his begetter has loved. Be thou healthy, live thou, be thou sound … Atum keeps sound thy flesh.

Book of the Dead, Spell 182 d S 1, 3[169]

I come unto thee, son of Nut, Osiris, ruler of eternity. I am a follower of Thoth, rejoicing in all that he has done. He brings for thee refreshing breath to thy nose, life and dominion to thy beautiful face, and the north wind that came forth from Atum to thy nostrils, lord of the sacred land. He lets the light shine on thy breast; he illumines for thee the way of darkness. He does away for thee with the evil that clings to thy body by the spells he utters. … Thy father Re makes sound (thy) body .

Book of the Dead, Spell 183 S 1, 4[170]

Ascend with Isis, rise with the Day-bark. May you have power in your body!

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 222 § 210-11[171]

Horus will rub your flesh, O King; Thoth will rub your feet. O Shu, raise up the King; O Nut, give your hand to the King.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 323 § 519[172]

Receive me, for I belong to you, and your heart is glad. As for my corpse, it is rejuvenated.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 336 § 548[173]

A ‘resurrection’ text

O King, your head is knit to your bones for you, and your bones are knit to your head for you.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 355 § 572[174]

O Osiris the King, stand up! Horus comes and claims you from the gods, for Horus has loved you, he has provided you with his Eye, Horus has attached his Eye to you; Horus has split open your eye for you that you may see with it, the gods have knit up your face for you, for they have loved you, Isis and Nephthys have made you hale, and Horus is not far from you, for you are his essence. May your face be well-disposed to him; hasten, receive the word of Horus, with which you will be well pleased. Listen to Horus, for it will not be harmful to you; he has caused the gods to serve you. O Osiris the King, awake!

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 364 § 609-12[175]

Horus has revived you in this your name of Andjeti … Nephthys has collected all your members for you in this her name of ‘Seshat, Lady of Builders’. ‹She› has made them hale for you. … Horus has reassembled your members for you, and he will not let you perish; he has put you together, and nothing shall be disturbed in you; Horus has set you up, and nothing shall be disturbed in you; Horus has set you up, and there shall be no unsteadiness(?).

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 364 § 614-17[176]

Oho! Oho! Raise yourself, O King; receive your head, collect your bones, gather your limbs together, throw off the earth from your flesh … Rise up, O King, for you have not died!

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 373 § 654-57[177]

Raise yourself, O King, receive your water, gather together your bones, stand on your feet.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 457 § 858-59[178]

Osiris is raised from the dead

The sky reels, the earth quakes, Horus comes, Thoth appears, they raise Osiris from upon his side and make him stand up in front of the Two Enneads.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 477 § 956[179]

A ‘resurrection’ text

[O King, stand up] and sit down, throw off the earth which is on you!

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 497 § 1067[180]

Awake, Osiris! awake, O King! stand up and sit down, throw off the earth which is on you!

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 498 § 1068[181]

Stand up! You shall not perish, you shall not be destroyed, but live, O King! Your mother Nut lays hold of you that she may enfold you, and Geb takes your hand; ‘Welcome!’ say your forefathers. May you have power in your body, may your body be clothed.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 537 § 1300-01[182]

Raise yourself, throw off your dust, remove the mask(?) which is on your face, loosen your bonds, for they are not bonds, they are the tresses of Nephthys.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 553 § 1363[183]

“Loose your bonds” being said to someone resurrecting from the dead sure sounds familiar (e.g. Loose him, and let him go). Moreover, why would bonds need to be loosed if the body was just going to keep lying there motionless as the antagonists assert?

A ‘resurrection’ text

Raise yourself, O my father the King, knit your head, gather together your members, lift yourself up on your feet.”

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 603 § 1675[184]

Stand up for me, O my father; stand up for me, O Osiris the King, for I am indeed your son, I am Horus. I have come for you that I may cleanse you and purify you, that I may bring you to life and collect your bones for you, that I may gather together your soft parts for you and collect your dismembered parts for you, for I am Horus who protected his father … O my father Osiris the King. Raise yourself, O my father Osiris the King, for you are Alive.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 606 § 1683-85, 1700[185]

Nephthys restores the king to life

Rouse yourself, O King! Turn yourself about, O King! I am Nephthys, and I have come that I may lay hold of you and give to you your heart for your body.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 628 § 1786[186]

Restoration of the circulation of the blood

O Osiris the King, a current courses round in you, surging and dripping.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 630 § 1788[187]

The king’s body is restored

I have put my brother together, I have reassembled his members.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 631 § 1789[188]

A ‘resurrection’ text

O King, collect your bones, assemble your members, whiten your teeth, take your bodily heart, throw off this earth which is on your flesh.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 666 § 1916[189]

The king is reborn

The god has power in his body; (so) the two mountains are split apart, this King comes into being, this King has power in his body.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 685 § 2064[190]

And as pointed out previously by Dr. Mark J. Smith & others, this bodily resurrection was believed to extend to those deceased who emulated Osiris. (Much like how followers of Ehrman’s former religion believe that by emulating their god they too will be physically resurrected just as he was, e.g. buried with him by baptism into death: that like as he was raised up from the dead, even so we also should walk in newness of life. .) In fact, that’s actually what the purpose & premise of the funerary texts & rituals were- “sympathetic magic” aimed at identiying the deceased with Osiris in order to inherit his power & resurrection, i.e. a “passion play”[191] of sorts in which the story of Osiris is reenacted with the deceased “playing” the part of Osiris.[192] But that too is another topic in itself. Anyway:

The king is identified with Osiris

O Atum, this one here is your son Osiris whom you have caused to be restored that he may live. If he lives, this King will live; if he does not die, this King will not die; if he is not destroyed, this King will not be destroyed. … If he lives, this King will live, etc. Your body is the body of this King, your flesh is the flesh of this King, your bones are the bones of this King.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 219 § 167, 193[193]

Raise yourself, loose your bonds, throw off your dust, sit on this your iron throne … He has come to you his father, he has come to you, O Geb; do for him this which you did for his brother Osiris on that day of your complete fishing out of the water for the putting of bones in order and for the making firm of soles and the cleansing of his upper and lower nails.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 536 § 1292, 1297[194]

You have your efflux which issued from Osiris; gather together your bones, make ready your members, throw off your dust, loosen your bonds. The tomb is opened for you, the doors of the coffin are drawn back for you … Do for him what you did for his brother Osiris on that day of putting the bones in order, of making good the soles, and of travelling the causeway.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 676 § 2007-09, 2016[195]

Horus comes to you, O King, that he may do for you what he did for his father Osiris so that you may live as those who are in the sky live, that you may be more extant than those who exist on earth. Raise yourself because of your strength, may you ascend to the sky, may the sky give birth to you like Orion, may you have power in your body.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 690 § 2115[196]

My bones are stretched out and my limbs are extended, and I walk on my feet like Osiris.

Coffin Texts, Spell 365 V, 26[197]

Hail to you, Lady of Goodness, ‹at› seeing whom those are in the Netherworld rejoice, who removes the limpness of the Inert One, because of whom Osiris has trodden, who made for him the stride of those who walk in his moment of interment, in this your name of ‘Dam which is under the feet’. May you give me my legs that I may walk on them, may there be joined together for me what is in the movement of my legs, for I am one who strides far to the limit of my desire, I shall not be turned back at the gates of the Netherworld.

Coffin Texts, Spell 236 III, 303[198]

^So he hasn’t even gotten to the Nethwerworld yet, and in fact, he first needs his physical body to be resurrected so that he can use its legs to walk to those gates of the netherworld, and anywhere else in “the limit of my desire,” just as was done for Osiris. So again, Osirian resurrection occured here on earth prior to journeying to the netherworld.

The young god is born of the beautiful West, having come here from the land of the living; he has got rid of his dust, he has filled his body with magic, he has quenched his thirst with it.

Coffin Texts, Spell 30 I, 86-90[199]

You shall have power in your body … You shall not perish, your members shall not be destroyed, your [members] shall not suffer, and you shall not be wiped out for ever and ever. May you live, grow old, have dominion, have permanence in your (sic) presence, and live after old age through what Horus himself has done for you.

Coffin Texts, Spell 29, I 81[200]

Re has made you lift up your limbs, so raise yourself up, O N.

Coffin Texts, Spell 27 I, 80[201]

O N, the earth opens its mouth for you, Geb throws open his jaws on your account. … May you kindle your warmth upon earth, may you become Osiris.

Coffin Texts, Spell 4, I, 11-14 1192[202]

Dr. Faulkner noted here that “the earth opens to let the deceased leave his grave” and that the warmth upon earth refers to “presumably the erstwhile warmth of his living body.”[203]

Here begins the Breathing Permit, which Isis made for her brother Osiris in order to revive his ba, to revive his corpse, and to make his entire body young again, so that he might enter the horizon with his father Re, that his ba might appear gloriously in heaven in the disk of the moon, and that his corpse might shine in Orion in the belly of Nut

The Hôr Book of Breathings, Col. III.1-2[204]

So again, his body is revived and made young, and then that body ascends into heaven (specifically- the constellation Orion).

Etc. and so on.

Came Out of the Grave after His Resurrection, and Went into the Holy City

And finally we come to the sources which drive home the point already firmly established earlier throughout this article- that Osirian resurrection was believed to have taken place in the tomb HERE ON EARTH in the world of the living. For Osiris in particular, this location was most popularly believed to be in the area of the Thinite nome known as Nedit (where he was also killed by Seth), located at Abydos,[205] a city in Egypt HERE ON EARTH, which you can still visit even to this day.

Fig. : Tomb remains at Abydos, believed for centuries to have been the literal emptied grave of Osiris.

Fig. 52: Tomb remains at Abydos which were for centuries believed to literally be the emptied grave of Osiris.

The most important tenet of the religion of Osiris was the belief in his resurrection. A whole section of the Pyramid Texts is devoted to the subject, and there are many references to it in other parts. Just as Abydos was considered to have been the scene of the death of Osiris, so it was the spot where his resurrection took place.

Dr. Samuel A.B. Mercer, The Religion of Ancient Egypt[206]

Texts from later periods describe the commemoration of Osiris’s death and resurrection at Abydos with lamentations for Osiris and jubilation at his resurrection.

Dr. Barbara S. Lesko, The Great Goddesses of Egypt[207]

The Djehutynakhts themselves would have travelled in comfort in a boat equipped with a cabin and awning for shade. … The Djehutynakhts’ flotilla provided for their needs in the afterlife as well, including a trip to Abydos, burial place of the funerary god Osiris, and the site of his resurrection.

Dr. Rita Freed, in Minerva[208]

During the late Old Kingdom (2625-2130 BCE), Abydos, which was associated with the death and resurrection of Osiris, rose to prominence as a major cult centre for the worship of that god.

Dr. Bridget McDermott, Decoding Egyptian Hieroglyphs[209]

Nedyt, literally ‘the striking place’, was a town in the Abydos province.

Dr. Joyce Tyldesley, Myths and Legends of Ancient Egypt[210]

He is described as ‘falling on his side’ on the river bank at Nedyet in the district of Abydos.

Dr. George Hart, Egyptian Myths[211]

Whatever the origin of the name Nedyet—and it has been suggested above that paronomasia had a part in it—its inclusion as a cult scene within the nome of Abydos seems established not only by the parallelismus membrorum, but also by the presence of the name in the Abydene ritual drama of Ikhernofret in the Twelfth Dynasty.

Dr. John. G. Griffiths, The Origins of Osiris and His Cult[212]

Isis, Osiris’ wife, then began a quest for his body. In one Egyptian version, she found it dead on the shore of Nedit near Abydos.

Dr. Milton Covensky, The Ancient Near Eastern Tradition[213]

Nedit was considered near Abydos as early as the Pyramid Texts.

Dr. Samuel A.B. Mercer, The Religion of Ancient Egypt[214]

He who is in Nedit quivers, his head is lifted by Re; he detests sleep, he hates inertness. O flesh of the King, do not decay, do not rot, do not smell unpleasant.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 412 § 721-22[215]

Osiris was laid low by his brother Seth, but He who is in Nedit moves, his head is raised by Re; he detests sleep and hates inertness, so the King will not putrefy, he will not rot, this King will not be cursed by your anger, you gods. May you wake in peace, may you wake, Osiris, in peace, may you wake, O you who are in Nedit, in peace. His head is raised by Re.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 576 § 1500-03[216]

May you ascend from the Thinite nome, may you descend into the Great Valley. Stand up! Raise yourself!

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 459 § 867[217]

So as covered earlier by the likes of Dr. Brier & others, the chronology is first a resurrection here on earth, then ascension to heaven from that earth (“the Thinite nome”), and then descent into the netherworld. The deceased journeys to the netherworld after resurrection. Anyway, continuing- as was shown earlier throughout this article Osirian resurrection is also explicitly described as taking place within the tomb, which for Osiris was, of course, believed to be located at Abydos.

The doors of the sky are opened for you, the doors of the firmament are thrown open for you, the doors of the tomb are opened for you.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 553 § 1361[218]

The tomb is opened for you, the doors of the tomb-chamber are thrown open for you, and you find your abundance meeting you.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 665A § 1909[219]

Your father Geb will open his doors for you. … You shall have power in your body, the doors shall be turned back, and the gates of the tomb shall be opened.

Coffin Texts, Spell 834 VII, 35[220]

I am carrying the mummy of Osiris, I am proceeding to take it to Abydos to cause it to rest in Alkhah.

The London-Leiden Magical Papyrus, Col. XVI § 29-30[221]

One of the passages in Greek in London and Leiden concerns the purely Egyptian divinity Osiris and his burial in Abydos.

Dr. Janet H. Johnson, in The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Including the Demotic Spells, Volume One: Texts, Second Edition[222]

‘Alkai’ is the name of the shrine-precinct at Abydos in which the mummy of Osiris was supposed to rest.

Dr. Mark J. Smith, in Egyptian Religion: The Last Thousand Years, Part 1[223]

Ancient Egyptians also tried their best to be buried as close as possible to the recognized tomb of Osiris in Abydos.

Dr. Christian Roy, Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1 A-L[224]

Many pilgrimages were made to the tomb of Osiris at Abydos.

Dr. Frederick E. Brenk, in Sage and Emperor: Plutarch, Greek Intellectuals, and Roman Power in the Time of Trajan[225]

Also at Abydos, but in documents of a much later age, the Songs of Isis and Nephthys were sung by two priestesses impersonating those goddesses.

Dr. G. Ali Gaballa and Dr. Kenneth A. Kitchen, in Orientalia[226]

A passage from the Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys in the Bremner-Rhind papyrus (at the latest dating from towards the end of the 4th century B.C.E.) helps to guide us in the right direction. These songs were chanted by two priestesses in in the course of rites (prototypes of the Graeco-Roman «mysteries» of Isis and Osiris) celebrated in the temple of Osiris at Abydos and designed to call the god back after his sad and long departure.

Dr. Howard M. Jackson, in Chronique d’Egypte[227]

O fair Stripling, come to thine house;
For a very long while we have not seen thee.
O fair Sistrum-player, come to thine house

Come hither to thy songstresses,
And drive care from out of our house;
Come hither to thy songstresses,
For it is not fitting for thee to dwell alone.
Our Lord is in peace in his place!

Mayest thou alight on earth at the hall of the Great Temple,
The Two Ladies serving thee.
Raise thee up! Raise thee up!
Behold Seth is in the place of execution, and he who rebelled against thee shall not be.
Come thou to thine house, O Osiris, thy place where men seek to see thee;
Hear thou the plaint of Horus in the arms of his mother Isis.
But thou art repulsed, being scattered through all lands, and he who shall reunite thy body, he shall inherit thine estate.
O great god, provide thyself with thy shape,
Forsake not thine house, O Osiris!
Come thou in peace to thy place

Come thou to thine house without fear.
O fair Sistrum-player, come to thine house,
Be thou exalted, exalted, thy back to thine house

Come thou in peace to thy place;
O fair Sistrum-player, come to thine house; it is long indeed that thou hast been in cessation.

O fair Sistrum-player, come to thine house;
Be exalted, be exalted, thy back to (?) thine house , the gods being on their thrones.
Ho! Come in peace! O King of Lower Egypt, come in peace!

Men and women in the city are seeking our Lord,
Who (?) walked the earth in the time of our Lord.
Come to me! Heaven is felled (?) to earth
And the god is caused to come to his place.
Snuff the wind to thy nose!
The Lord is gone into his palace.

Ho! Ho! Our Lord comes to his house;
They place protection about his temple,
And our Lord comes in peace upon his throne.
Be established in thine house without fear!

thy temple is illumined with thy beauty,
The Ennead is in fear through thy majesty,
the earth quakes through dread of thee;
I am thy wife, who acts on thy behalf,
A sister beneficial to her brother

She makes hale for thee thy flesh on thy bones

Come to thine house, O Osiris, who judgest the gods;
Open thine eyes, that thou mayest see with them;
Drive thou away the clouds,
Give thou light to the earth in darkness;
Come to thine house, O Osiris, First of the Westerners, come to thine house.
O Thou who camest forth from the womb with the uraeus on thine head,
Thine eyes illumine the Two Lands and the gods.
Raise thee, raise thee up, O Sovereign our Lord!
He [Seth] who rebelled against thee is at the execution-block, and shall not be.
Be stable, be stable, in thy name of Stable One;
Thou hast thy body, O (King) Onnophris;
Thou hast thy flesh, O thou who art weary of heart.

Go thou in peace to Busiris!
Raise thee up, O Osiris!
Raise thee, raise thee up in peace!

Bremner-Rhind Papyrus, Songs of Isis and Nephthys § 1.10-17.2[228]

Wonka clear

The point is made clear beyond dispute. The location of Osiris’ resurrection was the same as that of his death- here on earth, the world of the living, in Nedit of Abydos. He was called back to life by Isis & Nephthys (w/the other gods) there. They bid him to return to life in his body and raise himself up there at his “house,” at his tomb in Abydos. They bid him to “alight on earth at the hall of the Great Temple,” a place which they described as being “here,” a place where men (i.e. human mortals who walk “on earth”) come to see him, a city where “men and women” seek their Lord. It was there in Nedit where Re lifted his head and caused his inert body to quiver & move and “wake in peace,” thus freeing him from the decay, rot, unpleasant odor, and inertness of death. Primary sources have indeed attested to a tradition in which Osiris indubitably underwent a physical, bodily resurrection here on earth before ascending to heaven and passing over to the netherworld.

So that’s it for the antagonists, their position has been destroyed to the point of no possibility of rebuttal.


This article has dragged on long enough. So even though there’s a lot more I could go into, such as empty tombs, sealed tombs & multiple sarcophagi with false door entrance/exits, the expansion of time in the netherworld, etc., etc., as well as more antagonistic bullshit which I could debunk here (such as the kettle logic assertions that—contra their dubious Osiris-only-lived-on-as-disembodied-ghost excuse—Osiris was allegedly innately immortal & thus never died in the first place, or that his “body neither rotted nor decomposed” and hence no resurrection, in spite of “Nut puts her hand on me just as she did for Osiris on the day when he died“- PT Utt. 505 § 1090[229] and “Horus came from his Father’s seed while the former was undergoing decay“- Book of the Dead, Spell 78 S 16[230] and the many, MANY other pieces of evidence which likewise state exactly the opposite[231]), for now I shall simply refer readers to the place where I have already thoroughly debunked such bullshit. That place being, of course, The Perennial Gospel. 😉 There you can also find the evidence for plenty of other related motifs such as the aforementioned burial in water, burial in a tomb for three days, posthumous ascension to heaven on a cloud, judgement for sins, the lake of fire, forgiveness of sins, the symbolic consumption of flesh & blood in the form of bread & wine, the promise to one day return again and bring about the end of the world, etc., etc., etc.

‘Til next time:


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[1] Herodotus, Histories, in The Landmark Herodotus: The Histories, ed. R.B. Strassler, trans. A.L. Purvis (New York: Anchor Books, 2009), 136.

[2] Louis V. Žabkar, A Study of the Ba Concept in Ancient Egyptian Texts (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1968), 81-82. (Emph. added.)

[3] Edwin M. Yamauchi, “Life, Death, and the Afterlife in the Ancient Near East,” in Life in the Face of Death: the Resurrection Message of the New Testament, ed. R.N. Longenecker (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1998), 27.

[4] Žabkar (1968), 82. (Emph. added.)

[5] Ibid. 82-83. (Emph. added.)

[6] Ibid. 97. (Emph. added.)

[7] Louis V. Žabkar, “Herodotus and the Egyptian Idea of Immortality,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 22, no. 1 (1963): 60-61. (Emph. added.)

[8] Ibid. 61. (Emph. added.)

[9] Žabkar (1968), 113. (Emph. added.)

[10] Žabkar (1963), 61-62. (Emph. added.)

[11] Erik Hornung, History of Ancient Egypt: An Introduction, trans. D. Lorton (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978-99), 36. (Emph. added.)

[12] Alan B. Lloyd, Ancient Egypt: State and Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 210. (Emph. added.)

[13] Alan B. Lloyd, Herodotus Book II: Introduction (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1975-94), 57-58. (Emph. added.)

[14] Mark J. Smith, “Osiris and the Deceased,” in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, ed. W. Wendrich (Los Angeles: 2008), 2. (Emph. added.)

[15] Mark J. Smith, “Resurrection and the Body in Graeco-Roman Egypt,” in The Human Body in Death and Resurrection, eds. T. Nicklas, F.V. Reiterer, and J. Verheyden (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, 2009), 35-36. (Emph. added.)

[16] Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001-05), 14. (Emph. added.)

[17] Ragnhild B. Finnestad, Image of the World and Symbol of the Creator (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz GmbH & Co. KG, 1985), 135. (Emph. added.)

[18] Lynn Meskell, Private Life in New Kingdom Egypt (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), 58. (Emph. added.)

[19] Erik Hornung, Valley of the Kings: Horizon of Eternity, trans. D. Warburton (New York: Timken Publishers, Inc., 1982-90), 206. (Emph. added.)

[20] Smith (2009), 33-34. (Emph. added.)

[21] Herman Te Velde, “Some remarks on the concept ‘person’ in the ancient Egyptian culture,” in Concepts of Person in Religion and Thoughts, ed. H.G. Kippenberg, Y.B. Kuiper, A.F. Sanders (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, 1990) 92. (Emph. added.)

[22] Assmann (2001-05), 89. (Emph. added.)

[23] Barbara Mertz, Red Land, Black Land: Daily Life in Ancient Egypt (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1966-2008), 312-13. (Emph. added.)

[24] Foy Scalf,“The Role of Birds within the Religious Landscape of Ancient Egypt,” in Between Heaven and Earth: Birds in Ancient Egypt, ed. R. Bailleul-Lesuer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012), 35. (Emph. added.)

[25] Žabkar (1968), 155-56, 160, 162. (Emph. added.)

[26] Edward F. Wente, “Destruction of Mankind,” in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt: Volume 1, ed. D.B. Redford (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 389.

[27] Assmann (2001-05), 93-94, 97, 292. (Emph. added.)

[28] Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Vol. I (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1973), 99-100. (Emph. added.)

[29] Susan Redford and Donald B. Redford, “The Cult and Necropolis of the Sacred Ram at Mendes,” Divine Creatures: Animal Mummies in Ancient Egypt, ed. S. Ikram (Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2005), 165.

[30] Dimitri Meeks and Dr. Christine Favard-Meeks , Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods, trans. G.M. Goshgarian (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993-96), 153. (Emph. added.)

[31] Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Vol. III (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1978),, 108.

[32] Žabkar (1968), 11.

[33] Ibid. 51.

[34] Faulkner (1973), 210. (Emph. added.) See also Spell 216, n.1.

[35] Ian Shaw, Exploring Ancient Egypt (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 21.

Alan B. Lloyd, “Strabo and the Memphite Tauromachy,” in Hommages a Maarten J. Vermaseren, Vol. II, eds. M.B. de Boer and T.A. Edridge (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1978), 618.

John G. Griffiths, “Osiris,” in Lexikon der Ägyptologie:Band IV Megiddo-Pyramiden, eds. W. Helck and W. Westendorf (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz GmbH & Co. KG, 1982), 629.

William W. Batstone, “Notes and Comments: Tibullus,” in Latin Lyric and Elegiac Poetry: An Anthology of New Translations, eds. D.J. Rayor and W.W. Batstone (New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1995), 205.

See also Tibullus, Poem I.7.27-28; Strabo, Geography XVII, 1.31; Plutarch, Moralia 362D; Gebel Es-Silsilah Quarry Stela No. 100, Label for the Memphite High Priest, Label for Anubis; Third Serapeum Votive Stela of Padiese, Louvre Stela IM 3736, Label for Apis; Serapeum Votive Stela of God’s Father Padja, Louvre Stela IM 3441, Main Text; Serapeum Votive Stela of Painmu, Louvre Stela IM 3424, Main Text; First Serapeum Stela, Louvre SIM 3733, Label for Apis; etc.

[36] Pyramid Texts, Utterance 532 § 1256

Book of the Dead, Spell 183 a S 4; c S 1

Papyrus of Ani, Introductory Hymn to Osiris

[37] Lidija M. McKnight, “Religion and mummies,” in Mummies Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Mummies in History, Religion, and Popular Culture, ed. M. Cardin (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2015), 352. (Emph. added.)

[38] Samuel A.B. Mercer, The Religion of Ancient Egypt, (London: Luzac & Co., 1949), 46. (Emph. added.)

[39] Smith (2009), 32. (Emph. added.)

[40] Jíří Janák, “Akh,” in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, ed. W. Wendrich (Los Angeles: 2013), 2-3, 4. (Emph. added.)

[41] Harold Hays, “Funerary Rituals (Pharaonic Period),” in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, ed. W. Wendrich (Los Angeles: 2010), 8. (Emph. added.)

[42] Christina Riggs, “Funerary Rituals (Ptolemaic and Roman Periods),” in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, ed. W. Wendrich (Los Angeles: 2010), 2. (Emph. added.)

[43] Te Velde (1990) 92. (Emph. added.)

[44] Colleen Manassa, The Late Egyptian Underworld: Sarcophagi and Related Texts from the Nectanebid Period (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz GmbH & Co. KG, 2007), 316. (Emph. added.)

[45] Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 59. (Emph. added.)

[46] Erik Hornung, Idea into Image: Essays on Ancient Egyptian Thought[95], trans. E. Bredeck (New York: Timken Publishers, Inc., 1989-92), 104, 184. (Emph. added.)

[47] Gregory Glazov, The Bridling of the Tongue and the Opening of the Mouth in Biblical Prophecy (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd, 2001), 364, 367. (Emph. added.)

[48] Lynn Meskell, Private Life in New Kingdom Egypt (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), 184. (Emph. added.)

[49] Salima Ikram, Death and Burial in Ancient Egypt, (London: Longman, 2003), 31. (Emph. added.)

[50] Lloyd (2014), 226. (Emph. added.)

[51] Žabkar (1968), 44, n.285. (Emph. added.)

[52] Andrey O. Bolshakov, Man and his Double in Egyptian Ideology of the Old Kingdom (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 1997), 126.

[53] Rabun M. Taylor, The Moral Mirror of Roman Art, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 2.

[54] Glenn S. Holland, Gods in the Desert: Religions of the Ancient Near East (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2009), 59.

[55] Bolshakov (1997), 157, 262.

[56] Faulkner (1969), 33.

[57] David O. Connor, “Abydos, North, ka chapels and cenotaphs,” in Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, ed. K.A. Bard (London: Routledge, 1999), 100.

[58] Te Velde (1990) 95-96. (Emph. added.)

[59] Bolshakov (1997), 262.

[60] Carolyn Graves-Brown, Dancing for Hathor: Women in Ancient Egypt (London: Continuum UK, 2010), 167-168.

[61] Bolshakov (1997), 153.

[62] Faulkner (1969), 43. (Emph. added.)

[63] William K. Simpson, “The Loyalist Instruction of the Sehetepibre Stela,” in The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry, ed. W.K. Simpson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003),173. (Emph. added.)

[64] Andrey O. Bolshakov, “Ka,” in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Vol. 2, ed. D.B. Redford (New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2001), 216. (Emph. added.)

[65] Assmann (2001-05), 99-100.

[66] “The ka returns to the social sphere from which it came, to the ancestors who have already died”- Assmann (2001-05), 101.

“At death one’s ka went to rest, subsumed back into its generic folds, a return to commonality.”- Mark Lehner, “Fractal House of Pharaoh: Ancient Egypt as a Complex Adaptive System, a Trial Formulation,” in Dynamics in Himan and Primate Societies: Agent-Based Modeling of Social and Spatial Processes, eds. T.A. Kohler and G.J. Gumerman (Oxford: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2000), 319.

[67] Bolshakov (1997), 126. (Emph. added.)

[68] Emily Teeter and Courtney DeNeice Kleinschmidt-Jacobsen, “26. Mirror,” in The Life of Meresamun: A Temple Singer in Ancient Egypt, eds. E. Teeter and J.H. Johnson (Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2009), 63.

[69] Bolshakov (2001), 215.

[70] Holland (2009), 59.

[71] Hornung (1978-99), 175.

[72] Pyramid Texts, Utterance 589 § 1609.

[73] Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs, trans. A. Jenkins (Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag, 1996-2002), 244.

[74] Ibid.

[75] Bolshakov (1997), 126.

[76] Ibid. 125.

[77] Faulkner(1969), 148-49.

[78] Ikram (2003), 25-26.

[79] Žabkar (1968), 135 n.63.

[80] Chester Beatty Papyrus VII.4-6.

[81] Patricia Remler, Egyptian Mythology: A to Z (New York: Chelsea House, 2000-10), 78.

[82] Ikram (2003), 24.

[83] Ibid.

[84] Ibid.

[85] Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic (New York: Quill, 1980-2001), 113. (Emph. added.)

[86] The Great Courses, “Bob Brier,” (accessed September 29, 2013).

[87] Long Island University, “Bob Brier,” (accessed April 17, 2013).

[88] Bob Brier, “The Book of the Dead (anthology),” in Mummies Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Mummies in History, Religion, and Popular Culture, ed. M. Cardin (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2015), 36, 38. (Emph. added.)

[89] Brier (1980-2001), 68. (Emph. added.)

[90] Bob Brier, Egyptian Mummies: Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Art (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1994), 23. (Emph. added.)

[91] Lloyd (2014), 227. (Emph. added.)

[92] Glazov (2001), 363-64. (Emph. added.)

[93] Kyriakos Savvopoulos, Alexandrea in Aegypto: The Role of the Egyptian Tradition in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods- Ideology, Culture, Identity, and Public Life (Leiden: Leiden University, 2011), 267. (Emph. added.)

[94] Manassa (2007), 316, 415. (Emph. added.)

[95] Hornung (1989-92), 103. (Emph. added.)

[96] Erik Hornung, The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife, trans. D. Lorton (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999), 87.

[97] Günter Dreyer, in National Geographic Special: Egypt Underworld, dir. N. Donnelly (Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Television, 2009).

[98] Maya Müller, “Braids for Paradise from Dynastic Egypt to the Islamic Middle Ages,” in Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta: Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Egyptologists, Volume II, ed. J.C. Goyon and C. Cardin (Leuven: Peeters Publishers 2007), 1345. (Emph. added.)

[99] Ikram (2003), 39, 186, 206. (Emph. added.)

[100] Marissa A. Stevens, “Opening of the Mouth,” Mummies Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Mummies in History, Religion, and Popular Culture, ed. M. Cardin (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2015), 331-32. (Emph. added.)

[101] A. Rosalie David, “The ancient Egyptian medical system,” Egyptian Mummies and Modern Science, ed. A.Rosalie David (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 183. (Emph. added.)

[102] Holland (2009), 49, 59, 64, 256, 282-83. (Emph. added.)

[103] Herman Te Velde, “Funerary Mythology,” in Mummies & Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt, eds. S. D’Auria, P. Lacovara, C.H. Roehrig (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1988), 29, 33-36. (Emph. added.)

[104] Smith (2008), 1-4. (Emph. added.)

[105] Smith (2009), 27-39. (Emph. added.)

[106] Assmann (2001-05), 33-35, 66, 116, 364. (Emph. added.)

[107] John C. Darnell, The Enigmatic Netherworld Books of the Solar-Osirian Unity: Cryptographic Compositions in the Tombs of Tutankhamun, Ramesses VI and Ramesses IX (Fribourg: Academic Press Fribourg, 2004), 481. (Emph. added.)

[108] John H. Taylor, Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt (London: British Museum Press, 2001), 23. (Emph. added.)

[109] Lana Troy, “Religion and Cult during the Time of Thutmose III,” in Thutmose III: A New Biography, eds. E.H. Cline and D.B. O’Connor (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2006), 155, 156, 164. (Emph. added.)

[110] Lorna Oakes and Lucia Gahlin, Ancient Egypt: An Illustrated Reference to the Myths, Religions, Pyramids and Temples of the Land of the Pharaohs (London: Anness Publishing Ltd, 2002-05), 227. (Emph. added.)

[111] Gay Robins, The Art of Ancient Egypt: Revised Edition (London: The British Museum Press, 1997-2008), 115, 158. (Emph. added.)

[112] Žabkar (1968), 82, 155-56. (Emph. added.)

[113] Jan Zandee, Death as an Enemy: According to Ancient Egyptian Conceptions, trans. W.F. Klasens (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1960), 13, 80, 108. (Emph. added.)

[114] Faulkner (1969), 298. (Emph. added.)

[115] Ibid. 122. (Emph. added.)

[116] Faulkner (1973), 11. (Emph. added.)

[117] Faulkner (1978), 32. (Emph. added.)

[118] Thomas G. Allen, The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 158. (Emph. added.)

[119] Ibid. 157. (Emph. added.)

[120] Faulkner (1973), 26. (Emph. added.)

[121] Ibid. 52. (Emph. added.)

[122] Ibid. 58. (Emph. added.)

[123] Ibid. 62-63. (Emph. added.)

[124] Ibid. 70. (Emph. added.)

[125] Ibid. 85. (Emph. added.)

[126] Ibid. 177. (Emph. added.)

[127] Ibid. 179. (Emph. added.)

[128] Ibid. 183. (Emph. added.)

[129] Ibid. 184. (Emph. added.)

[130] Ibid. (Emph. added.)

[131] Ibid. 189. (Emph. added.)

[132] Ibid. (Emph. added.)

[133] Ibid. 190, n.4. (Emph. added.)

[134] Faulkner (1977), 13. (Emph. added.) The translator’s commentary for this utterance states that Lord of walls means “the occupant of the walled tomb-chamber” and clarifies that “it is the deceased himself who is being roused to activity” in “the living body.” So once more it is seen that the resurrection occurs in the tomb here on earth and that it was expected that the physical, biological body of the deceased/Osiris got up and literally walked out of the tomb, going “to and fro.”

[135] Ibid. 19. (Emph. added.)

[136] Ibid. 58. (Emph. added.)

[137] Ibid. 84. (Emph. added.)

[138] Ibid. 86-87, n.4. (Emph. added.)

[139] Ibid. 148-49. (Emph. added.)

[140] Ibid. 152. (Emph. added.)

[141] Ibid. 271. (Emph. added.)

[142] Ibid. 288. (Emph. added.)

[143] Ibid. (Emph. added.)

[144] Ibid. 304. (Emph. added.)

[145] Faulkner (1978), 20. (Emph. added.)

[146] Ibid. 22. (Emph. added.)

[147] Ibid. 26. (Emph. added.)

[148] Ibid. 29. (Emph. added.)

[149] Ibid. 34. (Emph. added.)

[150] Ibid. 41. (Emph. added.)

[151] Ibid. 45. (Emph. added.)

[152] Ibid. 63. (Emph. added.)

[153] Ibid. 71. (Emph. added.)

[154] Ibid. 132-33. (Emph. added.)

[155] Ibid. 164. (Emph. added.)

[156] T.G. Allen (1974), 9. (Emph. added.)

[157] Ibid. 38. (Emph. added.)

[158] Ibid. (Emph. added.)

[159] Ibid. 50.

[160] Ibid. 62. (Emph. added.)

[161] Ibid. 69. (Emph. added.)

[162] Ibid. 120. (Emph. added.)

[163] Ibid. 139. (Emph. added.)

[164] Ibid. 176-77. (Emph. added.)

[165] Ibid. 186. (Emph. added.)

[166] Ibid. 189. (Emph. added.)

[167] Ibid. 193-94. (Emph. added.)

[168] Ibid. 196. (Emph. added.)

[169] Ibid. 200. (Emph. added.)

[170] Ibid. 200-01. (Emph. added.)

[171] Faulkner (1969), 50. (Emph. added.)

[172] Ibid. 103. (Emph. added.)

[173] Ibid. 109. (Emph. added.)

[174] Ibid. 113. (Emph. added.)

[175] Ibid. 118. (Emph. added.)

[176] Ibid. 119. (Emph. added.)

[177] Ibid. 123-24. (Emph. added.)

[178] Ibid. 152. (Emph. added.)

[179] Ibid. 164. (Emph. added.)

[180] Ibid. 176. (Emph. added.)

[181] Ibid. 177. (Emph. added.)

[182] Ibid. 205-06. (Emph. added.)

[183] Ibid. 213. (Emph. added.)

[184] Ibid. 249. (Emph. added.)

[185] Ibid. 250-51. (Emph. added.)

[186] Ibid. 261. (Emph. added.)

[187] Ibid. 262. (Emph. added.)

[188] Ibid. (Emph. added.)

[189] Ibid. 277. (Emph. added.)

[190] Ibid. 295. (Emph. added.)

[191] Steven Snape, Ancient Egyptian Tombs: The Culture of Life and Death (Chichester: Blackwell Publishing,2011), 129.

[192] Coffin Texts, Spell 227 III, 260-63.

John G. Griffiths, Apuleius of Madauron: The Isis-Book (Metamorphosis, Book XI) (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1975), 316-17.

Harold M. Hays, The Organization of the Pyramid Texts: Typology and Disposition, Vol. 1 (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV,2012), 167-68.

Samuel G.F. Brandon, “Saviour and Judge: Two Examples of Divine Ambivalence,” Liber Amicorum: Studies in Honour of Professor Dr. C.J. Bleeker, ed. C.J. Bleeker (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1969), 44-49. (Emph. added.)

Samuel G.F. Brandon, “Redemption in Ancient Egypt,” in Types of Redemption: Contributions to the Theme of the Study-Conference held at Jerusalem, 14th to 19th July, 1968, ed. C.J. Bleeker and R.J.Z. Werblowsky (Supplements to Numen 18; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1970), 39, 42-43. (Emph. added.)

Allen (1974), 3.

[193] Faulkner (1969), 46, 48. (Emph. added.)

[194] Ibid. 205. (Emph. added.)

[195] Ibid. 289-90. (Emph. added.)

[196] Ibid. 299. (Emph. added.)

[197] Faulkner (1977), 6. (Emph. added.)

[198] Faulkner (1973), 185. (Emph. added.)

[199] Ibid. 19. (Emph. added.)

[200] Ibid. 18. (Emph. added.)

[201] Ibid. 17. (Emph. added.)

[202] Ibid. 2. (Emph. added.)

[203] Ibid. n.1-2. (Emph. added.)

[204] Robert K. Ritner, The Joseph Smith Egyptian Papyri: A Complete Editon, trans. K. Baer (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2013). (Emph. added.)

[205] Pyramid Texts Utt. 437 § 798‐99, 610 § 1716; Stela of Ikhernofret § 3, 10; Pyramid Texts Utt. 422 § 754.

[206] Mercer (1949), 101. (Emph. added.)

[207] Barbara S. Lesko, The Great Goddesses of Egypt (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999), 172. (Emph. added.)

[208] Rita Freed, “The Secrets of Tomb 10A,” Minerva 20, no. 6 (2009): 17. (Emph. added.)

[209] Bridget McDermott, Decoding Egyptian Hieroglyphs (San Francisco: Chronicle Books LLC, 2001), 130‐31. (Emph. added.)

[210] Joyce Tyldesley, Myths and Legends of Ancient Egypt (London: Penguin Books Ltd, 2010), 103.

[211] George Hart, Egyptian Myths (Austin: University of Texas, 1990‐97), 30‐31. (Emph. added.)

[212] John G. Griffiths, The Origins of Osiris and His Cult (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1980), 130‐31. (Emph. added.)

[213] Milton Covensky, The Ancient Near Eastern Tradition (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), 76. (Emph. added.)

[214] Mercer (1949), 100. (Emph. added.)

[215] Faulkner (1969), 135. (Emph. added.)

[216] Ibid. 231. (Emph. added.)

[217] Ibid. 153. (Emph. added.)

[218] Ibid. 213. (Emph. added.)

[219] Ibid. 275. (Emph. added.)

[220] Faulkner (1978), 22. (Emph. added.)

[221] F.L. Griffith and Herbert Thompson, The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden (London: H. Grevel & Co., 1904), 109. (Emph. added.)

[222] Janet H. Johnson, “Introduction to the Demotic Magical Papyri,” in The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Including the Demotic Spells, Volume One: Texts, Second Edition (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1986‐96), lviii n.8. (Emph. added.)

[223] Mark J. Smith, “A Demotic Coffin Inscription: Berlin ÄG. Inv. 7227,” Egyptian Religion: The Last Thousand Years, Part 1, eds. A. Schoors and H. Willems (Leuven: Peeters Publishers, 1998), 434. (Emph. added.)

[224] Christian Roy, Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1 A-L (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2005), 227. (Emph. added.)

[225] Frederick E. Brenk, “Plutarch’s Description of Egyptian Religion, Osiris, and the Contemporary Scene,” in Sage and Emperor: Plutarch, Greek Intellectuals and Roman Power in the Time of Trajan, eds. P.A. Stadter and L. Van der Stockt (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2001), 81. (Emph. added.)

[226] Gaballa Ali Gaballa and Kenneth A. Kitchen, “The Festival of Sokar,” Orientalia 38, fasc. 1 (1969): 39. (Emph. added.)

[227] Howard M. Jackson, “Isis, Pupil of the Eye of the World,” Chronique d’Egypte 61, no. 121 (1986): 129. (Emph. added.)

[228] Raymond O. Faulkner, “The Bremner-Rhind Papyrus: I. A. The Songs of Isis and Nephthys,” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 22, no. 2 (1936): 122‐32. (Emph. added.)

[229] Faulkner (1969), 181. (Emph. added.)

[230] Allen (1974), 69. (Emph. added.)

[231] See The Perennial Gospel, pp.220-40.


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