The obstinacy never ends. From an apologetic book I just randomly stumbled upon 😉 on the web:
Hmmm… well, first things first:
So disciple≥“a follower.”
And apostle=“one who is sent forth.”
We’ll come back to that momentarily.
Just “an” image? Hardly. But again, we’ll come back to that.
“Book of Anduat”? Okay, okay, typos happen to everyone, even to the best of us, and I’m sure if one searches long & hard over material I’ve posted on the web that a few typos could be found. However, such typos are less likely to occur in areas of a document where the author is very familiar with the subject matter. They’re far less likely to slip through the cracks when the author already knows better rather than just relying on spell-check & proof-reading alone. And that’s why this typo here is amusing. When the subject matter concerns ancient Egyptian primary sources, typos such as “Anduat” in place of “Amduat” will never be found in any of my writings, for I for one actually am very familiar with it & own a modern scholarly translation which I’ve read cover-to-cover several times. Now the actual content of the book series quoted above has already demonstrated to me several times how unfamiliar its author is with Egyptian primary sources, so coupling that with cute little typos like this just drives that point home all the more. You’d likely never see him misspell the titles of any of the books of scripture for his own religion, because those he actually has a good grasp of.
I also find amusing the use of the word “spirit” there, which in its traditional Western Graeco-Roman usage as it’s being employed there is a concept not found in indigenous ancient Egyptian culture (as already thoroughly explained) and thus a “translation” made obsolete by more current scholarly research, only kept on life support by pop “Egyptosophy.” Here the use of the misnomer “spirit” is transparent in it’s attempt to try and distance these 12 male figures from the 12 male figures of that author’s religious scriptures to which they are often compared. Most references I’ve read for this scene in academic works refer to these 12 as 12 male figures and/or as 12 gods. Just as they should, for that is what the inscription accompanying the scene states- gods. But I’ve yet to see anyone other than this apologist refer to them as “spirits.” Just as things should be, for the reason already stated above, i.e. there was no such concept in ancient Egypt.
The inscription for this scene states of Horus:
What he has to do in the Netherworld:
To make the star-gods move and to set the positions of the hours in the Netherworld.
The person of Horus of the Netherworld says to the star-gods:
«May your flesh be in order, may your forms come into being, that you may rest in your stars!»
Book of Amduat, 7th Hour (15th cen. BCE)
In the lower register, the stars are sent on their way, since their stable orbits are a sign of the continuous order of the cosmos.
Dr. Erik Hornung and Dr. Theodor Abt, Knowledge for the Afterlife: The Egyptian Amduat- A Quest for Immortality
So not only, as previously stated, are these 12 gods of Horus corporeal beings of flesh as opposed to some Graeco-Romanized idea of “spirits,” but also Horus makes them move and directs their positions. They are “sent on their way,” so each of them is literally “one who is sent forth,” and thus they are quite appropriately 12 apostles of Horus. They are 12 male apostles of flesh, just like a certain other group of 12 male apostles of flesh sent forth at the command of a certain deity.
Moreover, these 12 apostles of Horus are crowned with 12 stars above their heads, corresponding to 12 stars “in heaven”. That too is comparable to that aforementioned other group of 12 apostles, for in their scriptures they too are represented by a crown of “twelve stars” as part of “a great wonder in heaven,” as were their “twelve patriarchs” who came before them (yet still came after Horus’ 12 apostles). Thus the parallel between these groups is made that much more conspicuous, i.e. they certainly are “akin to anything like the twelve disciples.”
It is worth noting here the kettle logic of claiming that to point out this motif in the Horus mythos is just a crap shoot of searching “far and wide to find anything with Horus depicted with twelve other figures,” yet in the same keystroke admitting to the symbolic significance for this motif and thereby unwittingly confessing that was in fact not something that was merely arbitrary. It was a very deliberately created motif within ancient Egypt, every bit as much as the use of the number twelve for the apostles of that author’s religion was deliberate rather than arbitrary. And on that point…
Given iconography of a certain religion from the Levant is replete with images of its deity with other beings of its mythology in all sorts of combinations, it is not surprising that we might find an image with him standing with twelve others. Why not pick one where he is depicted with three others…
and say those are his disciples?
Even textual references are treated this way. They likewise say that he actually “appointed other seventy also,” while some say it was “seventy-two.”
Yet another text says “the number of names together were about an hundred and twenty.”
Some tell us there “were four thousand men, beside women and children,” while others still say there “were about five thousand men, besides women and children.”
We also read that there were “with him a hundred forty and four thousand.”
But then there’s the text that just flat out claims that “the world is gone after him.”
So why cherry-pick just twelve and call them his disciples? Clearly all that has happened in the case treated above is that adherents of this religion searched far and wide to find anything with their savior depicted with twelve other figures. 😉
As you can see, what has actually happened in the case treated above is that our apologist author friend here has yet again succumbed to the special pleading fallacy.
The reason his religion tends to single out & emphasize the group of “twelve apostles” over that of other groupings like those mentioned above is because their own scriptures and their predecessor religion tends to single out & emphasize the number twelve as a very significant & sacred recurring motif, more recurring than almost every other numerological archetype within their scriptures (arguably second only to seven). E.g.-
And of course, there’s the very twelve which our apologist author friend here pointed out- the twelve hours of the day…
…which, of course, far post-dates Horus’ use of the motif by several centuries, as do all of the examples of “the twelve” just listed. So Mr. ‘Pology man here has attempted to downplay the significance of the day hours even though his own religion’s scriptures give a wink & nod to it, just like he attempted to downplay the significance of “the Twelve” motif in general within Egyptian lore even though it is actually even more recurring there than it is within the canon of his religion’s scriptures.
For example, there are the aforementioned twelve apostles of Horus.
^That makes at least four images of that so far, not to mention the several other tombs of the New Kingdom onward which likewise contain such images. So this is hardly a case of having merely “focused on an image.”
Anyway, there is also Horus and the twelve followers of his father Osiris, whom Horus baptizes into new life.
There is Horus and the twelve enemies of Osiris taken captive by Horus to the be burned in the Lake of Fire.There’s the twelve servants of Osiris whom “Horus has adorned.” There are the twelve followers of Osiris who surround his shrine and are under the command of, yet again, his son Horus. So Horus is actually intimately connected with “the twelve” motif. This here is a perfect transition right into the next group- the twelve followers of Osiris. And yes, they are explicitly called that, his “followers.”
There are also the twelve female followers of Osiris.There are the twelve followers of Osiris who practiced Maat on earth. There are the twelve grain gods of Osiris who feed the residents of his kingdom. And this is where it gets really interesting, because we thus get the twelve gods of Osiris who carry twelve baskets of bread which feed the gods.
How fascinating, because I recall reading somewhere else of a much later story that likewise featured a god feeding his community which involved his 12 servants and 12 baskets of miraculous bread (cf. Fig. 50). 😉
Then there’s also the twelve gods of Osiris who guard the Lake of Fire.So of course, there is the jury of twelve gods who assist Osiris in the judgement of the dead (cf. Fig. 51). twelve guides of Re who walk on water across their lake. Also seen walking on water are the twelve gods whose duty is “grinding the enemy and letting Nun come into existence.”
And then we have…
They said that the Egyptians were the first of all peoples to discover the year, by dividing up the seasons into twelve parts to total one year, and that they discovered how to do this from the stars. The Egyptians seem to me to be much wiser than the Hellenes in the way they regulate the timing of the seasons. While the Hellenes attempt to preserve the timing of the seasons by inserting an intercalary month every other year, the Egyptians divide the year into twelve months of thirty days each and add just five days each year beyond that number, and thus their seasons do return at the same periods in the cycle from year to year. They said that the Egyptians were also the first to establish the tradition of identifying names’ for the twelve gods, and that the Hellenes adopted this practice from them. …
Now let me relate what others told me, with the agreement of the Egyptians, about what happened in Egypt; and I will again add something of my own observations. After being liberated from Ethiopian rule and following the reign of the priest of Hephaistos, the Egyptians, who could not live without a king, divided all Egypt into twelve districts and appointed twelve kings to rule them. … They also decided that a memorial should be left to commemorate them all collectively, and so they had a labyrinth· constructed a short distance south of Lake Moeris near the city that is named after crocodiles. Of all the wonders I have seen, this labyrinth truly beggars description. … It has twelve roofed courtyards with gates; six of the gates are situated in a row facing north, the other six exactly opposite them facing south.
Herodotus, Histories 2.4.1-2, 2.147.1-4 (5th century BCE)
So in the ancient Mediterranean world the belief was that the Egyptians actually invented “The Twelve” motif, and that they did so by consulting the oldest primary source there is- nature itself, i.e. “the stars.” And dwelling among those stars is the most conspicuous marker of “The Twelve,” that being the moon, which divides the solar year into twelve complete lunar cycles known as the twelve months. It is there that the archetype of “The Twelve” originates, not with scriptures or tribes of an old covenant in the Levant, and not even with the much older Egyptian funerary texts. Instead, the motif goes all the way back to nature itself. The moon and its twelve annual cycles predate the invention of writing, the invention of art, and even predate mankind itself. It all trickled down from there into our culture, into our art & religion, etc.
Anyway, so as per all the evidence shown above, this motif of “The Twelve” in ancient Egypt is not random, it’s sacred & heavily emphasized, more so than any other group numbering in the funerary texts, and even more so than in the scriptural canon of the aforementioned Levantine religion.
It is clearly not a matter of scanning vigorously for something obscure, as this apologist author has tried to paint things. Instead, the motif of “the twelve” is inescapable and blatantly in your face all over the place within Egyptian funerary culture. It would actually appear to take some deliberate effort to avoid running into it when researching ancient Egypt, including when researching Horus specifically. And this is the case not just for ancient Egypt, but also for pretty much all of the ancient Mediterranean, e.g.-
the twelve Titans,
the twelve Olympians,
the twelve Labors of Hercules,
the twelve Hittite gods of the underworld,
the twelve human sacrifices to Hades,
the twelve winds of Aristotle,
the twelve tablets of Roman law,
the twelve prophetic birds of Romulus,
the twelve followers of Romulus,
the twelve sons of Acca Larentia,
the twelve priests of the College of Arvales,
the twelve peoples of Etrusia,
the twelve cities of Achaea,
the twelve Salian priests of Pallor and Pavor,
the twelve Salian priests of Mars Gradivus,
the twelve sacred shields of the Temple of Mars,
the twelve Palatini of Numa,
the twelve altars of Janus,
the twelve divine horses of the deified Augustus,
the twelve signs of the Zodiac,
the twelve initiates of Mithraism,
the twelve forms of the Mithraic soul,
Moreover, “conjure up some evidence after the fact“? How ludicrous, what came “after the fact” were all the aforementioned groupings of twelve in his scriptures which came way after the fact of all the groupings of twelve from the Egyptian primary sources cited above.
Desperately deliberately conjuring up parallels after the fact is actually exactly what the authors of his religion’s new covenant scriptures did, especially the text named after a Roman publican. In his commentary on that publican evangelist, early father Origen Admantius even explicitly instructed his readers (which now includes this apologist) to do so, to deliberately look for parallels, or intentionally engage in the dreaded sin of “parallelomania.”
Seek you every sign in the old scriptures as indicative of some passage in the new scripture.
An instruction which our apologist friend has heeded quite well, drawing parallels which even the scripture authors did not mention, and which even the alleged “parallelomaniacs” he criticizes haven’t picked up on for all their ‘desperate conjuring’. And I must say that the degree of difference there is far more than the differences found between parallels he commonly attempts to criticize.
 Erik Hornung and Theodor Abt, The Egyptian Amduat: The Book of the Hidden Chamber, trans. D. Warburton (Zurich: Living Human Heritage Publications, 2007), 236. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 237-38. (Emph. added.)
 Erik Hornung and Theodor Abt, Knowledge for the Afterlife: The Egyptian Amduat- A Quest for Immortality (Zurich: Living Human Heritage Publications, 2003), 94. (Emph. added)
 Hornung and Abt (2007), 238.
 Ibid. 319. (Emph. added.)
 Erik Hornung and Theodor Abt, The Egyptian Book of Gates (Zurich: Living Human Heritage Publications, 2014), 322. (Emph. added.)
 Hornung and Abt (2007), 282. (Emph. added.)
 Hornung and Abt (2014), 132.
 Ibid. 218.
 Ibid. 218-21.
 Thomas G. Allen, The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 141. (Emph. added.)
 Hornung and Abt (2007), 285. (Emph. added.)
 Hornung and Abt (2014), 244. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 258. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 226.
 Joshua Roberson, “The Book of the Earth: A Study of Ancient Egyptian Symbol-Systems and the Evolution of New Kingdom Cosmographic Models” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2007), 295-97.
 Hornung and Abt (2014), 120. (Emph. added.)
 Hornung and Abt (2007), 87.
 Ibid. 20.
 Ibid. 22.
 Ibid. 31.
 Ibid. 33.
 Ibid. 284.
 Ibid. 287-88.
 Ibid. 290.
 Ibid. 335.
 Ibid. 340-41.
 Ibid. 361.
 Ibid. 364.
 Ibid. 368.
 Ibid. 375.
 Hornung and Abt (2014), 18.
 Ibid. 23.
 Ibid. 32.
 Ibid. 35.
 Ibid. 68-71. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 63-64.
 Ibid. 106.
 Ibid. 102.
 Ibid. 148.
 Ibid. 152.
 Ibid. 164.
 Ibid. 174.
 Ibid. 182.
 Ibid. 202-03.
 Ibid. 200.
 Ibid. 212.
 Ibid. 206.
 Ibid. 274.
 Ibid. 290.
 Ibid. 284.
 Ibid. 278.
 Ibid. 309.
 Ibid. 397.
 Ibid. 394-95.
 Ibid. 372.
 Herodotus, Histories, in The Landmark Herodotus: The Histories, ed. R.B. Strassler, trans. A.L. Purvis (New York: Anchor Books, 2009), 118, 186-87. (Emph. added.)