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Eating the Body of Osiris as Broken Bread: The Lunar Osiris Easter Special Part 2

bread dude

Fig. 1

In the previous blog, Part 1 of this series, I covered (from primary sources and scholarly references) how in the mythos of Osiris he was betrayed, killed, and his body was then literally broken into pieces yet later reassembled into one man again. I covered how this motif correlated with the unification of the divided nomes of Egypt into one kingdom, and how this was very comparable to how a certain Levantine shepherd god claimed his broken body symbolized his divided church and how he would one day reunite them into one kingdom again. Part 1 also established how Osiris was one of the lunar gods of ancient Egypt, in particular the god of the moon during spring season. This lunar aspect of Osiris was at the root of the motif of his bodily dismemberment, for the moon was believed to be dismembered into 14 pieces as it waned into darkness, but was reassembled piece by piece over the following 14 nights as it waxed into a full moon again. It also happened to be the 14th day of the moon’s cycle in which the aforementioned Good Shepherd of the Levant performed his own “broken body” ceremony with his disciples.

Another aspect of the moon that is important here is the ancient belief that the moon’s cooling effect at night created moisture and dew, which in turn made the moon responsible for the growth & harvest cycles of vegetation, especially that of grain.

moon-dew

Fig. 2

By Osiris the lunar world they reason that the moon, because it has a light that is generative and productive of moisture, is kindly towards the young of animals and the burgeoning plants.

Plutarch, Moralia 367[1]

What wonder if on the moon there grow roots and seeds and trees that have no need of rain nor yet of snow but are naturally adapted to a summery and rarefied air? And why is it unlikely that winds arise warmed by the moon and that breezes steadily accompany the rolling swell of her revolution by scattering off and diffusing dews and light moisture suffice for the vegetation and that she herself is not fiery or dry in temperament but soft and humidifying? After all, no influence of dry and comes to us from her but much of moistness and femininity: the growth of plants, the decay of meats, the souring and flattening of wine, the softening of timbers, the easy delivery of women.

Plutarch, Moralia[2]

The moon is rightly believed to be the star of the breath, and that it is this star that saturates the earth and fills bodies by its approach and empties them by its departure.

Pliny the Elder, Natural History 2.102 (1st cen. CE) [3]

Grain increases in bulk when the moon is waxing. … They also recommend giving corn and leguminous grains an airing and storing them away towards the end of the moon, making seed-plots when the moon is above the horizon.

Pliny the Elder, Natural History 18.73, 75[4]

Some operations should be carried out on the land during the waxing rather than the waning of the moon, while there are certain crops which you should gather in the opposite phase, such as grain and firewood.

Varro, On Agriculture 1.37 (1st century BCE) [5]

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Fig. 3

The Romans believed ‘the more moon the more dew’ and dew was considered beneficial to their crops. … Wheat should be sown at waxing moon.

Dr. Jan C. Zadoks, Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture[6]

Through its monthly cycle of waxing and waning, the moon was often linked with life and fertility. The myth of Osiris provided a clear example, and in ancient India similar connections were felt. The Desana, in southern Columbia, call the moon the “night sun,” and they credit it with reinforcing the world’s fertility by providing the dew.

Dr. Edwin C. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies: The Astronomy of Lost Civilizations[7]

By extension of this aspect of the moon, as a lunar god, Osiris was believed to have produced grain from his body after it was reassembled and mummified, as a sign that life-force was being restored to his corpse and thus heralding his imminent resurrection.

May you cause me to eat of the grain which grew there, like Osiris on the Great Flood.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 493 § 1059 (27th-22nd century BCE) [8]

BECOMING NEPER [the grain] … I live and I die, I am Osiris … I live and I die, for I am emmer.

Coffin Texts, Spell 330 IV, 168-69 (21st-18th century BCE) [9]

BECOMING BARLEY OF LOWER EGYPT. N is the bush of life which went forth from Osiris to grow on the ribs of Osiris.

Coffin Texts, Spell 269 IV, 6 [10]

It is this god of smoked(?) grain who lives after his death.

Coffin Texts, Spell 99 II, 95 [11]

I am the living one who is on his neck and my throat is made to flourish, (even I) whom Atum made into the Grain-god when he caused me to go down into this land, to the Island of Fire, when I became Osiris the son of Geb.

Coffin Texts, Spell 80 II, 40-41 [12]

Osiris pre-eminent in goodly grain, Osiris the lord of grain.

Book of the Dead, Spell 142 S 2 (16th-11th century BCE) [13]

Brilliance for your barley … when grain grows, Osiris emerges.

Book of Gates, 7th Hour, Scene 46 (16th-11th cen. BCE) [14]

Osiris is being buried at the time when the grain is sown and covered in the earth and that he comes to life and reappears when plants begin to sprout.

Plutarch, Moralia 377B[15]

In a scene from a Third Intermediate Period coffin, the light of the disk causes grain to spring forth from the mummy of Osiris.

Dr. Colleen Manassa, The Late Egyptian Underworld [16]

Thriving are the fields of the Netherworld,

As Re shines over the body of Osiris.

At your rising the plants appear.

These verses are well illustrated on a painted coffin of Dynasty 21 showing ears of grain ripening out of Osiris’s body[17] below a solar disk embraced by a pair of arms.

Dr. Erik Hornung, The Valley of the Kings: Horizon of Eternity [18]

The libation is mentioned in the former as the cause of the growth of barley and emmer, exactly the types of corn stored in the granaries on F of A1C, and which, in their turn, can of course be regarded as a manifestation of Osiris. …
The efflux of the body of Osiris, in its turn, was nothing less than the inundating Nile, on which the growth of barley and emmer was dependent. As a corollary to providing the deceased with his ‘efflux,’ he therefore also received an offering of grain, and this is rendered by the granaries depicted on F. …
This happened when the Nile became lower in February and March, a natural feature that symbolized the death of Osiris. It is probably significant that this was also the time when barley and emmer – the cereals symbolizing Osiris – were harvested. Possibly, a Ssp.t itrw was also celebrated at other times of the year, such as the period when the Nile rose again in summer. …
Some scholars have argued that the Osirian deceased who “washes the quay” is here compared with the Nile. Although this does not remove all the obstacles to our understanding of this passage, the succeeding remark that the speaker lives on white emmer affords some support, for elsewhere on the southern Egyptian coffins, emmer and barley have turned out to be related to libation offerings symbolizing the efflux of Osiris’ body, i.e., the fertilizing inundation of the Nile.

Dr. Harco Willems, The Coffin of Heqata [19]

From at least as early as the Middle Kingdom, the death and regeneration of Osiris had been specifically linked to the annual cycle of the sowing and harvesting of food crops. Barley was said to spring from the ribs of his body, and the donkies who threshed corn with their hooves and carried grain on their backs were reviled as creatures of Seth. The use of the wedjat eye measurement for grain ties in with the idea that crops came from the body of Osiris after it was regenerated through the presentation of the eye of Horus.

Dr. Geraldine Pinch, Egyptian Myth: A Very Short Introduction [20]

In Egypt the dead were purified so that they could enter a new life in the underworld. The dead Osiris is sprinkled causing blades of grain to sprout from his body. Like Osiris, “to be drowned in the river is to enter into connection with the god and thus to be divinised.”

Dr. Hannah K. Harrington, Holiness: Rabbinic Judaism and the Graeco-Roman World [21]

In the early dynastic period, Osiris also became identified with the new grain that rises from the earth, fructified by the Nile’s waters. He is pictured lying as a mummy beneath the grain, which sprouts from his body, while a priest pours water on him. Mats of earth with sprouting grain were placed in tombs of the dead, thus making the connection between the grain that rises yearly from the earth and immortal life that rises in the resurrected Osiris. …
In a story found in the theology of Memphis, Osiris falls into the risen Nile and drowns. The young Horus entreats the Goddesses Isis and Nephthys to rescue Osiris. They draw him from the waters and install him in the Great Seat, the temple of Ptah at Memphis, called the “mistress of all life, the Granary of the God through which the sustenance of the Two Lands is prepared.” Here, Osiris is explicitly identified with the grain “drowned” in the waters of the Nile and then risen to new life.

Dr. Rosemary R. Ruether, Goddesses and the Divine Feminine: A Western Religious History [22]

Osiris, as is evident in so many of the mortuary texts, was manifest in the phenomena of the life of nature. He was seen in the growing grain and the vegetation of the land; he was seen also in the waters of the Nile, for it was these waters, the ‘great efflux of Osiris’, which brought fertility to the land and allowed it to produce its crops.

Dr. Vincent A. Tobin, Theological Principles of Egyptian Religion [23]

New life, in the form of a crop of grain, sprouts from the body of the dead Osiris and completes another cycle in the circuit order. Osiris embodies the principle of rebirth and resurrection and is associated with everything that follows the pattern: the sun, the moon, the stars, the river, the plants, and the soul. He is “Lord of Everything.”

Dr. Edwin C. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies: The Astronomy of Lost Civilizations [24]

“

Fig. 4: Grain grows from the body of Osiris; relief from Karnak, c.1450 BCE.

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Fig. 5: Grain sprouting from the corpse of Osiris; from the Jumilhac Papyrus of the Louvre Museum.

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Fig. 6: Yet another scene showing ears of grain being produced from Osiris’ flesh; from the coffin of Nespawershepi, 10th century BCE.

This feature of Osiris’ body was the inspiration for the ancient customs known as Osiris beds and corn mummies. These involved making effigies of Osiris composed of grain. These effigies were regularly watered, eventually causing new ears to sprout forth from the effigies (.i.e. baptized into new life), just as they sprouted forth from the body of Lord Osiris.

From the New Kingdom onwards, Osiris beds (wooden outlines of the god filled with soil) and corn mummies were also placed in tombs. They were sometimes watered during the funeral so that the seeds would sprout after the tomb was closed. Such symbolism helped to incorporate the human dead in a great cycle of death and regeneration that encompassed all created beings and things. The human dead were also expected to play an active role in the maintenance of the cycle initiated by the creator.

Dr. Geraldine Pinch, Egyptian Myth: A very Short Introduction [25]

One of the most interesting magical objects in this room was a wooden mold in the shape of Osiris. This mold was lined with linen and filled with rich topsoil deposited by the Nile. Seeds, mostly for grain, were planted in the topsoil. When they sprouted, they would be a green, living representation for Osiris, symbolizing resurrection. Tutankhamen had sought to identify himself with Osiris in that way and bring about his resurrection.

Dr. Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic [26]

During the Khoiak-festival, a snw-vase was placed under the Osirian corn-mummy. The mummy was daily sprinkled with water to make the corn grow. Some of it trickled down through the clay figure and dripped into the vessel. In a religious sense, this was, of course, not just water. It was nothing less than the bodily efflux of Osiris, interpreted as a source of fertility and life.

Dr. Harco Willems, The Coffin of Heqata [27]

Further references to Osiris’s vegetative power are found in the “Osiris beds” of royal and private burials in the Valley of the Kings. These consisted of a wooden base in the form of the god’s silhouette covered with fertile soil and sown with grain, the green shoots bringing to life the mythical revival of the lord of the Beyond, and vicariously that of the deceased himself.

Dr. Erik Hornung, The Valley of the Kings: Horizon of Eternity [28]

Beginning in the late Third Intermediate Period (the second half of the eighth century B.C.) a specific subcategory of corn mummies emerged: figures placed in hawk-headed coffins. After the figure had been formed, a coating of oils, resins, wax, and gum was applied to the bandages or cover shroud to more closely simulate a genuine mummy. … Representations of and references to corn mummies have been found on coffins of genuine mummies, and the process of their manufacture during the Khoiak festival, as well as their subsequent burial, is described and depicted on temple walls.

Dr. Regine Schulz, in The Walters Art Museum Journal [29]

Osiris bed

Fig. 7: On the left is a traditional “Osiris bed” from Thebes, 6th century BCE, for growing sacramental grain used to make bread from Osiris’ broken body. To the right is a replication of that process, resulting in a reborn “Osiris.”

Osirisbed

Fig. 8: Another example of an Osiris bed; from the tomb of Horemheb, KV57, 13th century BCE.

Osiris bed

Fig. 9: An Osiris bed after sprouting, illustrating how the flesh of Osiris became grain; from the tomb of Maiherpri, KV36, 14th century BCE.

grain mummy

Fig. 10: A grain-mummy effigy of Osiris, currently at the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden.

grainmummy

Corn mummy

Fig. 11: Another Osirian grain-mummy with sarcophagus, from the Late Period; currently at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose.

So grain represented the very flesh of Osiris, for part of his flesh was literally turned into grain. His treacherous brother Seth who murdered him was therefore represented by the donkey, whose face he bore, because the donkey was the animal used in Egypt to thresh the grain in the mills and thereby breaking the body of the grains.[30]

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Fig. 12: The donkey threshes the Egyptian grain; from the tomb of Panehesy at Thebes.

“

Fig. 13: The Egyptian god Seth, brother and antagonist of Osiris, seen here with his iconic ass’s head; granite statue from the temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu.

Lector: It happened that Osiris in the form of barley was laid upon the threshing floor in Letopolis. Male animals, the followers of Seth in the form of cows and donkeys were brought to strike Osiris (thresh the barley) so that they may be sacrificed. Horus is the one who avenges his father.

Horus speaks to the followers of Seth (in the form of bulls and donkeys): “O followers of Seth, do not trample this my father.”

The Seth animals continue trampling the Osiris-­Barley, cutting him into several pieces.

Horus speaks to the followers of Seth: “Do not strike my father!”

The Seth-­animals continue to trample the Barley-­Osiris. Horus attacks and binds them.

Horus speaks to Osiris: “Seth’s poisonous spit shall not splash upon you.”

Seth, the donkey, stands next to Osiris-­Barley.

Lector: Osiris ascends to the heavens.

The grain is gathered up and placed on the Seth-­donkey.

The Dramatic Ramesseum Papyrus[31]

As the god of reborn grain, which was the central dietary staple throughout ancient Egypt, Osiris was believed to be the providers of food for all the kingdom. And not just the kingdom of Egypt, but he fed all the kingdom of the gods in the Netherworld as well- the “feeder of the multitudes” you might say.

And this is where it gets really interesting, because we thus get the twelve gods of Osiris who carry twelve baskets of bread which feed the gods.

How fascinating given the popularity of the much later story featuring a certain Levantine shepherd god likewise feeding his community, which involved his 12 servants and 12 baskets of miraculous bread.

12basketsbread

Fig. 16

Needless to say, the Egyptians used their grain to make the bread they ate. And wouldn’t you know it, the aforementioned grain which grew directly from the flesh of Osiris was likewise made into bread which was then eaten for the purpose of giving new life.

BECOMING BARLEY OF LOWER EGYPT. N is this bush of life which went forth from Osiris to grow on the ribs of Osiris and to nourish the plebs, which makes the gods divine and [transfigures] the akhs,[33] which provisions the owners of doubles and the owners of property, which makes cakes for the akhs which causes the living to grow, and which makes firm the bodies of the living.

Coffin Texts, Spell 269 IV, 6-7 [34]

There it is, right there straight from the holy scriptures of ancient Egypt- the flesh of Osiris was transformed into grain, which was then used to make cakes of bread, i.e. part of his body literally became bread and was eaten. The body of Osiris was transubstantiated into bread, bread which imparted divine power and life.

The term “corn” in Egyptology (as in English biblical usage) designates grain in general. Botanical analysis of a group of corn mummies in a Polish collection has identified the grain used as emmer or barley, which formed the basis of the most important foods of the Egyptians: bread and beer.

Dr. Regine Schulz, in The Walters Art Museum Journal [35]

Barley was said to spring from the ribs of his body … Since bread made from corn and beer made from barley were the basic foodstuffs for all Egyptians, the regeneration of Osiris was important to the whole nation.

Dr. Geraldine Pinch, Egyptian Myth: A very Short Introduction [36]

Moret … discusses the Heliopolitan and Osirian connotations possible for the term DfAw; DfA and kA.w foodstuffs are said to have been made by Osiris, and to consist of his body … Osiris is called Df(A) kAw xn.ty psD.t, “Provision, Food, Foremost of the Ennead.”

Dr. John C. Darnell, The Enigmatic Netherworld Books of the Solar-Osirian Unity [37]

Such being the case, it became customary at certain festivals to bake loaves of bread in the shape of the body of Osiris, and then divide, or break, the bread into individual body parts in remembrance of how his body was broken by Seth.

It so happens that scented loaves of bread accompany the Sokar figure in the Osirian mysteries described at Dendera. Called qfn–loaves, they are baked in special molds that mark them as representations of Osiris’ body parts, and they too are made of wheat flour (bdt, emmer wheat) mixed with aromatic substances (listed in columns 47-48).

Dr. Joseph D. Reed, in Transactions of the American Philological Association [38]

1.8. “I bring together to you the gods of the North and present to you all of the parts of your divine body, assembled in their place” (Dendera, translated from Chassinat (1966-68: II, 624)).

1.9. “The bread mold… made of wood… The sixteen members are carved on it, each of them designated by its name… his shin-bones [qs.w]… his phallus [D.t], his spinal column [pst]… his neck [At]” (Dendera, translated from Chassinat. (1966-68: II, 365)). This graphic portrayal of the assemblage of parts is repeated at Dendera with the mold of Sokaris, which has fourteen segments. Of these one is psd (Chassinat l’échine, earlier medical usage back, another At (Chassinat la nuque, earlier medical usage spine (1966-68: II, 493-7)).

Dr. Calvin W. Schwabe, Dr. Joyce Adams, and Dr. Carleton T. Hodge, in Anthropological Linguistics [39]

Each vase contains a limb from the body of the slain Osiris, out of which the body will be ritually put back together. Among the directions for carrying out the festival of Khoiak, there are exact instructions for preparing the limbs of Osiris’ body. They were made of a special dough that was baked in wooden molds. We may thus presume that along the Nile water, each of the vases contained one of these limbs. The accompanying texts repeatedly make mention of the “discharges” of Osiris.

Dr. Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt [40]

Bread men

Fig. 17: The broken body of a bread man, analogous to the ritual breaking of the bread body of Osiris.

Grain harvest

Fig. 18: The harvesting of grain, which of course originated from the body of Osiris; from the tomb of Nakht, TT52, 14th century BCE.

Bread

Fig. 19: The making of bread from grain, which, like all grain, was produced by the flesh of Osiris; based on a scene from the tomb of Ramesses III, KV11, 12th century BCE.

O you who are put under the earth and are in darkness!–an AH-cake.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 52 § 38 [41]

O Osiris the King, take that which should be on you–2 HT-loaves.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 113 § 73 [42]

O Osiris the King, I bring to you that which resembles(?) your face–2 nHr-loaves.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 114 § 74 [43]

O Osiris the King, I have set your eye in place–4 dpt-loaves.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 115 § 74 [44]

O Osiris the King, receive what should be on you–4 Sns-loaves.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 117 § 75 [45]

O Osiris the King, take your eye, take possession of it–4 imy-tA-loaves.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 118 § 75 [46]

O Osiris the King, open your eyes that you may see with them–2 bowls of zizyphus-bread.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 167 § 99 [47]

Geb has given you your eyes, that you may be content–a table of offerings. O Osiris the King, you are his double–a qHA-loaf.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 175-76 § 102 [48]

Raise yourself to this bread of yours which knows no mouldiness and your beer which knows no sourness, that you have a soul thereby, that you may be effective thereby, that you may be powerful thereby.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 457 § 859 [49]

You eldest son of Geb … He who presides over Khem raises you and has given a t-wr loaf and this grape-juice.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 610 § 1710, 23 [50]

The Valley gives you bread from the burial of her father Osiris.

Coffin Texts, Spell 22 I, 64-65 [51]

Your xnfw–loaves are Osiris.

Coffin Texts, Spell 67 I, 282 [52]

I am Osiristhe gods live on me. … I am emmer.

Coffin Texts, Spell 330 IV, 168-69 [53]

That’s all quite explicit. Long before the Common Era, the Egyptians ceremonially ate the broken body of their god Osiris in the form of broken bread transubstantiated from his flesh, and for the purpose of granting them eternal life after death. Sounds very familiar, no?

breaking bread

Fig. 20: “Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life.”

Wait, what’s that other part there? “Drinketh my blood”? Well, guess what other dietary staple the Egyptians attributed to the death of Osiris…

Drinking the Blood of Osiris as Wine: The Lunar Osiris Easter Special Part 3

Back to Part 1

More on Easter

More on the BODILY resurrection of Osiris HERE on Earth

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Notes

[1] Plutarch, Moralia, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume V, trans. F.C. Babbitt, (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936-62), 101.

[2] Plutarch, Moralia, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume XII, trans. H.F. Cherniss, (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968), 175. (Emphasis added.)

[3] Pliny the Elder, Natural History, in Pliny: Natural History, Books 1-2, trans. H. Rackham (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1938-67), 349.

[4] Pliny the Elder, Natural History, in Pliny: Natural History, Books 17-19, trans. H. Rackham (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961), 383, 391.

[5] Varro, On Agriculture, in Cato and Varro on Agriculture, trans. W.D. Hooper, H.B. Ash (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1934-1967), 261.

[6] Jan C. Zadoks, Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture: Studies in Pre-Modern Organic Agriculture (Leiden: Sidestone Press, 2013), 61.

[7] Edwin C. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies: The Astronomy of Lost Civilizations (Mineola: Dover Publications, Inc., 1983-2003), 67.

[8] Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 175.

[9] Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts: Vol. 1 (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1973), 254, n.1. (Emph. added.)

[10] Ibid. 205.

[11] Ibid. 97. (Emph. added.)

[12] Ibid. 85. (Emph. added.)

[13] Thomas G. Allen, The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 119. (Emph. added.)

[14] Erik Hornung, Theodor Abt, The Egyptian Book of Gates (Zurich: Living Human Heritage Publications, 2014), 258-59.

[15] Plutarch, in Babbitt (1936-62), 153.

[16] Colleen Manassa, The Late Egyptian Underworld: Sarcophagi and Related Texts from the Nectanebid Period (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2007), 416 n.37.

[17] Fig. 6.

[18] Erik Hornung, Valley of the Kings: Horizon of Eternity, trans. D. Warburton (New York: Timken Publishers, Inc., 1982-90), 118. (Emph. added.)

[19] Harco Willems, The Coffin of Heqata – Cairo JdE 36418: A Case Study of Egyptian Funerary Culture of the Early Middle Kingdom (Leuven: Peeters Publishers, 1996), 130, 138, 221, 245. (Emph. added.)

[20] Geraldine Pinch, Egyptian Myth: A very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 117. (Emph. added.)

[21] Hannah K. Harrington, Holiness: Rabbinic Judaism and the Graeco-Roman World (London: Routledge, 2001), 178. (Emph. added.)

[22] Rosemary R. Ruether, Goddesses and the Divine Feminine: A Western Religious History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 63-64. (Emph. added.)

[23] Vincent A. Tobin, Theological Principles of Egyptian Religion (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1989), 111.

[24] Krupp (1983-2003), 21. (Emph. added.)

[25] Pinch (2004), 117.

[26] Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic (New York: Quill, 1980-2001), 197.

[27] Willems (1996), 119.

[28] Hornung (1982-90), 118.

[29] Regine Schulz, “A Corn Mummy Decoded,” in The Walters Art Museum Journal 63 (2005): 5.

[30] John Baines, “Egypt,” in World Mythology, ed. R.G. Willis (New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1993), 45.

John G. Griffiths, The Origins of Osiris and His Cult (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1980), 50-51.Pinch (2002-04), 179.

[31] Raising the Djed Pillar, The Ramesseum Dramatic Papyrus, trans. S. Tyson Smith http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/faculty/stsmith/courses/Raising of the Djed-Pillar.pdf 4-5.

[32] Hornung and Abt (2014), 258. (Emph. added.)

[33] Akhs, the transfigured state of the bodies of the resurrected dead- click here for more info.

[34] Faulkner (1973), 205. (Emph. added.)

[35] Schulz, loc. cit. (Emph. added.)

[36] Pinch, loc. cit.

[37] John C. Darnell, The Enigmatic Netherworld Books of the Solar-Osirian Unity (Fribourg: Academic Press Fribourg, 2004), 315. (Emph. added.)

[38] Joseph D. Reed, “Arsinoe’s Adonis and the Poetics of Ptolemaic Imperialism,” Transactions of the American Philological Association 130 (2000): 331. (Emph. added.)

[39] Calvin W. Schwabe, Joyce Adams and Carleton T. Hodge, “Egyptian Beliefs about the Bull’s Spine: An Anatomical Origin for Ankh,” Anatomical Linguistics, Vol. 24, No. 4 (Winter, 1982): 448. (Emph. added.)

[40] Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, (2001-05), 364. (Emph. added.)

[41] Faulkner (1969), 10 (Emph. added.)

[42] Ibid. 25. (Emph. added.)

[43] Ibid. (Emph. added.)

[44] Ibid. (Emph. added.)

[45] Ibid. (Emph. added.)

[46] Ibid. (Emph. added.)

[47] Ibid. 32. (Emph. added.)

[48] Ibid. 33. (Emph. added.)

[49] Ibid. 152. (Emph. added.)

[50] Ibid. 253-54. (Emph. added.)

[51] Faulkner (1973), 13. (Emph. added.)

[52] Ibid. 62.

[53] Ibid. 254. (Emph. added.)

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7 comments on “Eating the Body of Osiris as Broken Bread: The Lunar Osiris Easter Special Part 2

  1. Shane Laureys
    April 23, 2019

    Hi, I cant seem to find one of the quotes by Geraldine Pinch (# 25). It says it’s in “Egyptian Myth: A very Short Introduction” but I cant seem to find it in there. Maybe it’s in another book by by her?

  2. Shane Laureys
    April 23, 2019

    I can find part of the quote in that book but not this part: “This feature of Osiris’ body was the inspiration for the ancient customs known as Osiris beds and corn mummies. These involved making effigies of Osiris composed of grain. These effigies were regularly watered, eventually causing new ears to sprout forth from the effigies (.i.e. baptized into new life), just as they sprouted forth from the body of Lord Osiris.”

  3. Shane Laureys
    April 23, 2019

    I see what happened. The part of the quote I can’t find is actually from your book. It looks like that quote(25) is a combination of what you wrote and what Geraldine Pinch wrote.

    • dnboswell
      April 23, 2019

      That is correct. Thank you for bringing that to my attention, it has now been corrected.

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