As covered in my previous post about the spring equinox, this is the time of year in which ancient Egyptians believed Osiris entered the moon. Through that event Osiris ushered in the spring season and with it the beginning of the resurrection of nature from the “death” of winter. This connection of nature’s “resurrection” to the god Osiris seems quite appropriate given that Osiris experienced his own bodily resurrection from the dead, here on earth. And it is this connection of Osiris with the cycles of nature which I would like to explore in the following series of articles to be published here at Mythicism.
When Osiris died, his corpse was later stolen by his brother Seth (a.k.a. Typhon), who betrayed him and plotted his murder.  Seth then literally broke the dead body of Osiris into several pieces and scattered them throughout the land of Egypt. Osiris’ wife Isis and sister Nephthys recovered the pieces of his broken body, and with the help of Horus and the other gods, reassembled them to make Osiris whole again.
When Osiris was ruling over Egypt as its lawful king, he was murdered by his brother Typhon, a violent and impious man; Typhon then divided the body of the slain man into twenty-six pieces and gave one portion to each of the band of murderers, since he wanted all of them to share in the pollution and felt that in this way he would have in them steadfast supporters and defenders of his rule.
Diodorus of Sicily, Library of History 1.21.2 (1st century BCE)
As they relate, Isis proceeded to her son Horus, who was being reared in Buto, and bestowed the chest in a place well out of the way; but Typhon, who was hunting by night in the light of the moon, happened upon it. Recognizing the body he divided it into fourteen parts and scattered them, each in a different place. Isis learned of this and sought for them again, sailing through the swamps in a boat of papyrus. This is the reason why people sailing in such boats are not harmed by the crocodiles, since these creatures in their own way show either their fear or their reverence for the goddess. The traditional result of Osiris’s dismemberment is that there are many so‑called tombs of Osiris in Egypt; for Isis held a funeral for each part when she had found it.
Plutarch, Moralia 358A (1st century CE)
King, your head is knit to your bones for you, and your bones are knit to your head for you.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 355 § 572 (27th-22nd century BCE) 
O Osiris the King, Geb has given you your eyes … Horus has reassembled you … Isis has reassembled you.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 357 § 583-84, 592 
O Osiris the King … the gods have knit up your face for you.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 364 § 609-10, 369 § 640-43 
Horus has reassembled your members for you, and he will not let you perish; he has put you together.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 364 § 616-17 
Horus has reassembled your limbs and he has put you together, and nothing in you shall be disturbed.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 367 § 635 
O King; receive your head, collect your bones, gather your limbs together.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 373 § 654 
Your mother comes … she will give you your head, she will reassemble your bones for you, she will join together your members for you, she will bring your heart into your body for you.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 447 § 827-28, 450 § 834-35
‹O Nut,› set your hand on me with life and dominion, that you may assemble my bones and collect my members. May you gather together my bones at(?) [… there is no limb of mine] devoid of God.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 485C § 1036-38
I have put my brother together, I have reassembled his members.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 631 § 1789
Osiris has filled himself with the Eye of Him whom he begot. … It will raise up your bones, it will reassemble your members for you, it will gather together your flesh for you.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 637 § 1800-02
O Osiris the King, knit together [your] limbs, reassemble your members, set your heart in its place!
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 664C § 1890-91
O King, gather your bones together, resume your members!
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 665A § 1908
O King, collect your bones, assemble your members, whiten your teeth, take your bodily heart.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 666 § 1916-17
O King, collect your bones, gather your members together.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 667C § 1952
Osiris … A libation for you is poured out by Isis, [Nephthys has cleansed you, even your two] great and mighty sisters who gathered your flesh together, who raised up your members, and who caused your eyes to appear in your head.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 670 § 1981
Gather together your bones, make ready your members, throw off your dust … O Osiris.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 676 § 2008-10
Behold, the King is at the head of the gods and is provided as a god, his bones are knit together as Osiris.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 687 § 2076-77
This King comes provided as a god, his bones are knit together as Osiris.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 690 § 2097
My sister, says Isis to Nephthys, this is our brother. Come, that we may raise his head. Come, that we may reassemble his bones. Come, that we may rearrange his members.
Coffin Texts, Spell 74 I, 306-07 (21st-18th century BCE) 
I reassemble the limbs of Osiris, I gather his bones together …I gather the bones of Osiris together and I make his flesh to flourish daily.
Coffin Texts, Spell 80 II, 38, 41-42
I am Horus … who gathered together these bones of Osiris.
Coffin Texts, Spell 175 III, 61
Hail to you, Lady of offerings ‹at› whom Osiris rejoices … who gathered together his arms and legs, who laid Osiris down … I am Osiris … my members are gathered together.
Coffin Texts, Spell 241 III, 325-26
I am Osiris … O you who split open my mouth for me and gathered together for me what issued from my flesh, grant to me offerings.
Coffin Texts, Spell 828 VII, 28-29
My members are gathered together … Join my members together.
Coffin Texts, Spell 830 VII, 31
Take the Eye of Horus which combines your flesh and pulls together your members.
Coffin Texts, Spell 862 VII, 65
I was with the mourners of Osiris … I was with Horus on the day of wrapping the Dismembered One.
Book of the Dead, Spell 1 S 3 (16th-11th century BCE) 
I am put together, renewed, and rejuvenated. I am Osiris.
Book of the Dead, Spell b S 
I have come unto thee, Osiris … (I have) united (for him) his bones and assembled (for him) his members.
Book of the Dead, Spell 147 g S 5
As stated above, when the pieces of Osiris body were scattered by Seth, each piece was hidden in a different territory or sepat of the land of Egypt, or as they are known today- the nomes of ancient Egypt. As Isis & her crew discovered each piece, she had a false tomb set up in that nome where it was found so that the true and final burial place would be kept a secret from Seth and prevent him from desecrating the corpse again. Because of this, there developed a close association between the nomes of Egypt and the pieces of the body of Osiris. While differing traditions vary in the exact number of nomes involved, the tale of his dismemberment and reconstitution also came to be thought of as analogous to the division and unification of the various nomes into one united kingdom of ancient Egypt under one governing authority.
When Osiris was later dismembered, his limbs were distributed among the members of Typhon’s gang who scattered them throughout the 14 or 16 nomes of Egypt.
Dr. Russell E. Gmirkin, Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus: Hellenistic Histories and the Date of the Pentateuch 
The body of Osiris was divided into fourteen parts; and a list in the temple of Dendea confirms that the number of parts and the nomes in which they lay was fourteen.
Dr. Anne Burton, Diodorus Siculus, Book 1: A Commentary 
Ptolemaic temples provide texts mentioning fourteen, sixteen and forty-two parts – the latter enabling a part of the god’s body to rest in every nome or administrative district of Egypt. Sites claiming pieces of Osiris include:
Sebennytos upper and lower leg
Herakleopolis thigh, head, two sides and two legs
Biga Island left leg
Dr. George Hart, The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses 
They interpret the body parts as representations of the nomes or nome capitals, so that the ritual restoration of Osiris’ physical and spiritual integrity also symbolizes the reunification of the entire land. … The Egyptians equated the dismembered body of Osiris with the multiplicity of the nomes, in order to celebrate the wholeness and integrity of the land in a ritual of reconstitution. The motive was concern for the continuing existence of Egyptian civilization in the face of a crisis that was interpreted and ritually enacted as a disintegrating force.
Dr. Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs 
The offering is subjected to a double sacramental explanation. One explanation refers the offering to the specific limb of Osiris’ body that is brought in it as a contribution by the respective nome to the restoration of the god’s body. On the second level, the limb is explained as the nome and its capital, with the result that the body of Osiris, restored and brought back to life, represents the entirety of the land of Egypt. This point is expressed clearly in the speeches of the king, who accompanies this procession:
I bring you the cities and nomes as your limbs.
The gods are assigned to your body as your mystery.
The divine limbs are the nome gods in their true form.
I bring you the company of the gods of Upper Egypt in their entirety:
Your divine limbs are gathered in their place.
I bring you the capitals of the nomes: they are your limbs,
they are your ka, which is with you.
I bring your name, your ba, your shadow, your form (oj=k),
your image, and the cities of your nomes.
I bring you the chief gods of Lower Egypt, united together.
All the limbs of your body, they are united.
Dr. Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt 
So in a metaphorical and spiritual sense, the body of Lord Osiris is his Kingdom, and the limbs or members that compose that body are the members of his kingdom- the chosen people of the holy land of Kemet. Therefore, as concerns Lord Osiris, the chosen people of Egypt “are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones.” They “are the body of” Osiris, “and members in particular.” They “being many, are one body in” Osiris, “and every one members one of another.” And although Seth hath said “I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad,” our Lord hath said “I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings! Even as this broken” body “was scattered over the hills, and was gathered together and became one, so let thy congregation be gathered together from the ends of the earth into thy kingdom. For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is” Osiris, and his kingdom. “God hath tempered the body together, having given more abundant honor to that part which lacked, that there should be no schism in the body; but that the members should have the same care one for another.” For Osiris did pray “save all my members (limbs), which have been scattered abroad in all the rulers, ministers, and workmen of this Æon, and gather them all together and receive them into the Light. I have recognized myself and gathered myself together from all sides. I have gathered together my limbs that were scattered abroad, and I know thee who thou art.”😉
Thus the body of Osiris is analogous to his kingdom, the land of Egypt. As Dr. Jan Assmann put it, this aspect of Osiris is “like the Pauline concept of the church as the body of” the so-called Good Shepherd, of whom it is said “the Lamb of God is dismembered and distributed, he that is dismembered yet not divided, who is always eaten yet never consumed, but sanctifies those who partake.” Or as the early scripture (which used to be considered canonical) known as The Didache declares of the Good Shepherd- “And concerning the broken Bread: We give thee thanks, our Father, for the life and knowledge which thou didst make known to us through thy Child. To thee be glory for ever. As this broken bread was scattered upon the mountains, but was brought together and became one, so let thy Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into thy kingdom, for thine is the glory and the power.”
Incidentally, this archetype of a dismembered body being scattered throughout the regions of a divided kingdom as a catalyst for uniting the kingdom into one can also be found in the “Old Covenant” scriptures of this Good Shepherd’s religion (which still came long after the aforecited Egyptian scriptures such as the Pyramid Texts, Coffin Texts, and Book of the Dead, etc.). I made a passing reference to it in a previous blog post here at Mythicism. The story goes that “In those days there was no king in” that land composed of 12 separated tribes. And there was a certain man “sojourning on the side of mount Ephraim, who took to him a concubine.” Long story short, as they were traveling through a city, a mob from that town raped his concubine to death, and in response to this “he took a knife, and laid hold on his concubine, and divided her, together with her bones, into twelve pieces, and sent her into all the coasts of” the twelve tribes. The people remarked that they had never witnessed such a dismemberment of a human corpse ever since they “came up out of the land of Egypt unto this day,” thus affirming a link to ancient Egypt, wherein we find popular tale of the dismemberment and scattering of Osiris. The scripture then states that in response to this dismemberment and scattering of the concubine, all the people of this divided land then “went out, and the congregation was gathered together as one man,” and “were gathered against the city, knit together as one man.” So much like Osiris was reassembled into one man and thus his kingdom was united into one community, and just as the metaphoric “body” of the Good Shepherd (his church) is to be reassembled and united into one kingdom, so also these 12 tribes became united through this broken body, even being described as “knit together as one man.” Interesting language to use there, given that one man normally isn’t “knit together” but is simply born that way. Osiris, however, was quite literally “knit together” into one man again.
Another aspect of the myth of the dismemberment of Osiris is its lunar aspect. As stated above in the opening paragraph and in the previous blog post, the beginning of spring at the vernal equinox was believed to be the time of the year when Osiris enters the moon, thus adding a lunar aspect to his mythos.
The moon is the Ba of Osiris.
Dr. Louis V. Žabkar, A Study of the Ba Concept in Ancient Egyptian Texts 
O King … you are born in your months as the moon.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 412 § 727, 732 
Osiris the King … may you be manifest at the New Moon.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 483 § 1012 
O you Sole One who shines as the moon.
Coffin Texts, Spell 93 II, 64 
O you Sole One who rises in the moon, O you Sole One who shines in the moon.
Coffin Texts, Spell 152 II, 260 
KNOWING THE SOULS OF THE NEW MOON, ENTERING INTO THE HOUSE OF OSIRIS OF DJEDU.
Coffin Texts, Spell 155 II, 308 
(O) Osiris … (Where, pray, art thou on blacked-out-moon day while the corpse is silent?)
Book of the Dead, Spell 64 variant S 18 
Hi, Osiris. … Thou dawnest as the Moon.
Book of the Dead, Spell 162 variant S 2 
August Mummy, Osiris … Raise thyself, Moon that circles the Two Lands.
Book of the Dead, Spell Pleyte 168 S 52, 54 
Ho you of On, you rise for us daily in heaven!
We cease not to see your rays!
Thoth, your guard, raises your ba,
In the day-bark in this your name of “Moon.” …
You come to us as child in moon and sun,
We cease not to behold you!
Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys § 4 
In this section Osiris is viewed as a cosmic god manifest in both sun and moon.
Dr. Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Volume III: The Late Period 
The wood which they cut on the occasions called the “burials of Osiris” they fashion into a crescent-shaped coffer because of the fact that the moon, when it comes near the sun, becomes crescent-shaped and disappears from our sight. … Wherefore there are many things in the Apis that resemble features of the moon, his bright parts being darkened by the shadowy. Moreover, at the time of the new moon in the month of Phamenoth they celebrate a festival to which they give the name of “Osiris’s coming of the Moon,” and this marks the beginning of the spring. Thus they make the power of Osiris to be fixed in the Moon, and say that Isis, since she is generation, is associated with him. … There are some who would make the legend an allegorical reference to matters touching eclipses; for the Moon suffers eclipse only when she is full, with the Sun directly opposite to her, and she falls into the shadow of the Earth, as they say Osiris fell into his coffin.
Plutarch, Moralia 368A-E 
So Osiris was one of the lunar gods of Egypt, in particular, the god of the moon during the spring season. And it is this connection with the moon that is the basis for the story of the dismemberment of Osiris’ body. When the moon is waning from full moon to new moon, each night the light it reflects from the sun recedes making it appear as though a small slice of the moon has been cut off, hidden from sight by being buried in darkness. Across those fourteen nights it looks as though the moon gets completely dismembered into fourteen pieces. Then when the moon begins its waxing phase from new moon to full moon again, the light it reflects from the sun returns little by little each night, making it seem as though the moon is being put back together piece by piece until its body is finally whole when it becomes a full moon again.
The dismemberment of Osiris into fourteen parts they refer allegorically to the days of the waning of that satellite from the time of the full moon to the new moon. And the day on which she becomes visible after escaping the solar rays and passing by the sun they style “Incomplete Good”; for Osiris is beneficent, and his name means many things, but, not least of all, an active and beneficent power, as they put it. The other name of the god, Omphis, Hermaeus says means “benefactor” when interpreted.
Plutarch, Moralia 368B
The 14 pieces of the body of Osiris sound like the 14 days of the waning, or “dying” moon, and on the main ceiling of the Dendera temple are inscriptions and pictorial reliefs that leave no doubt. In one panel, an eye, installed in a disk, is transported in a boat. The eye, we know, was a symbol of the sun or moon. Thoth, the ibis-headed scribe god of wisdom and knowledge, pilots the barge. Thoth was closely associated with the moon and counted the days and seasons. The text for this panel refers to the period after full moon, and 14 gods accompany the eye in the disk. Next to the portrayal of the waning moon, another carved panel represents the 14 days of the waxing moon. A staircase with 14 steps, a god on each, leads up to the same eye and disk, and hieroglyphics verify the god’s association with days of the growing moon. Osiris, it is written, is “luminous,” as the god of the moon. Finally, a third, adjacent panel shows Osiris in a boat with lsis and her sister Nephthys. Goddesses of the four cardinal directions support the sign of heaven, on which the boat floats, and the inscription says Osiris is the moon.
Dr. Edwin C. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies: The Astronomy of Lost Civilizations
During the festival of Choiak such a dramatic performance took place. It is described, not in its entire ritual context, but in certain directions for the moulding of an image of Osiris, reproduced on the walls of an Osiris chapel in Dendera. The image, which is called Sokaris (in Dendera rituals this god is often identified or intermingled with Osiris) is made of various substances and moulded into a form. The various ingredients have to be carefully measured in fourteen parts of the divine body:
The preparation of the image of Sokaris was thus a ritual reenactment of the gathering of the limbs of Osiris.
Dr. J. Podemann Sørensen, in Rethinking Religion: Studies in the Hellenistic Process 
The full moon is connected with the body of Osiris, which was dismembered into fourteen parts by Seth and subsequently made whole again. Osiris may be said to enter the sound eye in two distinct but related senses. According to the Egyptian view, on each of the fourteen successive days during the period of the moon’s waxing, a different divinity was thought to merge with that celestial body and restore one of its missing parts. These divinities constitute the Greater and Lesser Enneads which are said to have been created and equipped by Isis for the benefit of the sound eye in the passage from P. BM 10208 cited three paragraphs above. The parts or components which they supply are called dbH.w, a term used indifferently of the constituent elements of the moon and those of the body of Osiris. The work of these deities is completed by Thoth on the fifteenth day of the lunar month. At this time, restored to a state of wholeness through their actions, Osiris may be said to enter the sound eye.
Dr. Mark J. Smith, On the Primeval Ocean
Thus the body of Osiris was broken, just like the moon. Coincidentally, it was also on the 14th day of the moon’s cycle that the aforementioned Good Shepherd performed his own “broken body” ceremony with his disciples.
In addition to his dismemberment, Osiris’ connection with the moon is at the root of several other motifs in his mythos as well, some of which I plan to cover in the following blog posts of this series on the lunar Osiris. The first of these motifs regards the belief in the ancient world that the moon was responsible for the creation of dew & moisture in the air, and thus by extension it was responsible for the cycles of vegetation, especially that of grain.
By Osiris the lunar world they reason that the moon, because it has a light that is generative and productive of moisture, is kindly towards the young of animals and the burgeoning plants.
Plutarch, Moralia 367
What wonder if on the moon there grow roots and seeds and trees that have no need of rain nor yet of snow but are naturally adapted to a summery and rarefied air? And why is it unlikely that winds arise warmed by the moon and that breezes steadily accompany the rolling swell of her revolution by scattering off and diffusing dews and light moisture suffice for the vegetation and that she herself is not fiery or dry in temperament but soft and humidifying? After all, no influence of dry and comes to us from her but much of moistness and femininity: the growth of plants, the decay of meats, the souring and flattening of wine, the softening of timbers, the easy delivery of women.
The moon is rightly believed to be the star of the breath, and that it is this star that saturates the earth and fills bodies by its approach and empties them by its departure.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 2.102 (1st cen. CE) 
Grain increases in bulk when the moon is waxing. … They also recommend giving corn and leguminous grains an airing and storing them away towards the end of the moon, making seed-plots when the moon is above the horizon.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 18.73, 75
Some operations should be carried out on the land during the waxing rather than the waning of the moon, while there are certain crops which you should gather in the opposite phase, such as grain and firewood.
Varro, On Agriculture 1.37 (1st century BCE) 
And this leads us right into the next installment of this series…
 Pyramid Texts Utterance 136, Utt. 306 § 481, Utt. 357 § 590, 592, Utt. 532 § 1256, Utt. 535 § 1286, Utt. 587 § 1588, 1595, Utt. 670 § 1976-77.
Coffin Texts, Spell 16 and 17 I, 51-52, Spell 49 I, Spell 148 II, 213, Spell 215, 220-21, Spell 227 III, 261 b, Spell 303 IV, 56, Spell 315 IV, 97, Spell 316 IV, 105, Spell 353 IV, 396 a, b, Spell 595 VI, 213.
Plutarch, Moralia 356C.
 Diodorus of Sicily, Library of History, in Diodorus Siculus: Library of History, Books 1-2.34, trans. C.H. Oldfather (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1933-67), 65. (Emph. added.)
 Plutarch, Moralia, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume V, trans. F.C. Babbitt, (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936-62), 45. (Emphasis added.)
 Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 113.
 Ibid. 114-15.
 Ibid. 118, 122.
 Ibid. 119.
 Ibid. 121
 Ibid. 123.
 Ibid. 148-49.
 Ibid. 173.
 Ibid. 262.
 Ibid. 263-64.
 Ibid. 274.
 Ibid. 275.
 Ibid. 277.
 Ibid. 282.
 Ibid. 286.
 Ibid. 289.
 Ibid. 296.
 Ibid. 298.
 Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Vol. I (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1973), 69.
 Ibid. 84-85.
 Ibid. 150.
 Ibid. 189-90.
 Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Vol. III (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1978), 17.
 Ibid. 20.
 Ibid. 41.
 Thomas G. Allen, The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 5. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 50. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 139.
 Russell E. Gmirkin, Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus: Hellenistic Histories and the Date of the Pentateuch (New York: T & T Clark International, 2006), 202. (Emph. added.)
 Anne Burton, Diodorus Siculus, Book 1: A Commentary (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1972), 89. (Emph. added.)
 George Hart, The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses (New York: Routledge, 1986-2005), 124. (Emph. added.)
 Jan Assman, The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs, trans. A. Jenkins (New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1996-2002), 410-11.
 Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001-05), 364.
 Ibid. 361.
 Louis V. Žabkar, A Study of the Ba Concept in Ancient Egyptian Texts (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1968), 14.
 Faulkner (1969), 135.
 Ibid. 170.
 Faulkner (1973), 93.
 Ibid. 131.
 Ibid. 133.
 T.G. Allen (1974), 59.
 Ibid. 158.
 Ibid. 219-20.
 Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Volume III: The Late Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980-2006), 118. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 121 n.5. (Emph. added.)
 Plutarch, in Babbitt (1936-62), 103-07.
 Edwin C. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies: The Astronomy of Lost Civilizations (Mineola: Dover Publications, Inc., 1983-2003), 20.
 Plutarch, in Babbitt (1936-62), 103.
 Krupp (1983-2003), 18-19.
]53] J. Podemann Sørensen, “Attis or Osiris? Firmicus Maternus, De errore 22,” in Rethinking Religion: Studies in the Hellenistic Process, ed. J.P. Sørensen (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1989), 83-84.
 Mark J. Smith, On the Primeval Ocean (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2002), 122-23.
 Plutarch, Moralia, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume V, trans. F.C. Babbitt, (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936-62), 101.
 Plutarch, Moralia, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume XII, trans. H.F. Cherniss, (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968), 175. (Emphasis added.)
 Pliny the Elder, Natural History, in Pliny: Natural History, Books 1-2, trans. H. Rackham (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1938-67), 349.
 Pliny the Elder, Natural History, in Pliny: Natural History, Books 17-19, trans. H. Rackham (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961), 383, 391.
 Varro, On Agriculture, in Cato and Varro on Agriculture, trans. W.D. Hooper, H.B. Ash (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1934-1967), 261.