Welcome back. A quick synopsis- in Part 1 of this series I covered how the body of Osiris was killed and then literally broken into pieces and later reassembled, and how this is rooted in Osiris’ identity as a moon god. I also covered how this correlated with the separation and then uniting of the divided nomes of ancient Egypt into one kingdom, and how this was analogous to the Levantine Good Shepherd’s “body” (i.e. his church) is divided but is prophesied to one day be united into one kingdom. In Part 2 I covered how Osiris’ role as god of the springtime moon made him god of the springtime rebirth of vegetation, especially grain, which literally grew directly from the flesh of his corpse and then became bread which was ritualistically broken & eaten for the purpose of imbuing eternal life.
Grain and bread were not the only dietary staples produced from the body of Osiris. When he was originally killed by Seth, his death came by way of drowning. Seth locked him in a coffin and then buried him alive in the waters of the Nile, baptizing him into death, if you will. As per the myth, this watery death caused Osiris’ corpse to swell and putrefy thus causing his bodily fluids, including blood, to bleed out into the Nile river. This bleeding caused the water level to rise, imbued it with rich minerals, and turned the Nile river into blood. This myth was how the Egyptians explained the origins of the Nile’s annual flooding season, the Great Inundation as they called it, which was essential to the success of their crops and thus essential to their survival. As the water levels rose with the flooding each year, excess soil full of minerals washed into the Nile giving it a reddish color. Through the inundation of the Nile, Osiris watered all the crops of Egypt with his blood.
You have your water, you have your flood, the fluid which issued from the god, the exudation which issued from Osiris.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 436 § 788 
O King, your cool water is the great flood which issued from you.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 460 § 868 
Your water is yours, your flood is yours, your efflux which issued from Osiris is yours.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 536 § 1291 
Your water is yours, your flood is yours, your efflux which issued from the putrefaction of Osiris is yours.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 553 § 1360 
When the season of Inundation comes, provide the efflux which issued from Osiris
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 667A § 1944 
You have your water, you have your flood, you have your efflux which issued from Osiris.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 676 § 2007 
The king possesses his bodily fluids
You have your water, you have your efflux, you have your flood which issued from Osiris.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 679 § 2031-32 
I have quenched my thirst with the efflux of my father Osiris. O Isis, [I have quenched] my thirst with the high Nile, with the flood of Osiris.
Coffin Texts, Spell 362 V, 22 
Those waters in which it is dragged are the final(?) putrefaction from under the ribs of my father Osiris.
Coffin Texts, Spell 479 VI, 38 
The waters have overflowed for him … the efflux of Osiris flooded out when he was buried, and N is one who turned aside toward it for life, welfare and health.
Coffin Texts, Spell 680 VI, 306 
You have your water, you have your cold water, the efflux which issued from the god, the putrescence which issued from Osiris.
Coffin Texts, Spell 833 VII, 34 
The river is (as) filled (with) thickets as (is) the flood with the efflux that came forth from Osiris. May I gain access to water, may I have abundance of water, like this god who is in the mound of water.
Book of the Dead, Spell 149 n S 1 
Hi, Osiris. … Thou comest as the inundation that waters; thou providest for the fields.
Book of the Dead, Spell 162 variant S 2 
Raise thyself, Inundation, Osiris who came forth at the beginning and fills the earth with his efflux. … Raise thyself, thou who hast dawned as the inundation … Raise thyself, (Inundation), Great Green (Sea).
Book of the Dead, Spell Pleyte 168 S 34, 38, 42 
O Osiris N.,
take this libation
that comes from Elephantine,
this discharge that comes from Osiris,
which Sothis (the goddess of the new year) brings with her own arms
as she associates Khnum with you.
A great Nile inundation has come to you,
its arms filled with rejuvenated water,
to bring you gifts
of all fresh things at their time,
with no delay.
Libation Situla of High Priest Wsjr-wr 
The efflux of the body of Osiris, in its turn, was nothing less than the inundating Nile.
Dr. Harco Willems, The Coffin of Heqata 
His body was the land of Egypt, which was divided into provinces, each containing a relic of his limbs. He was also present in the waters of the Nile, which flooded and gave life each year to the earth of the Nile valley.
Dr. John D. Ray, Reflections of Osiris 
The rotting corpse of Osiris is often said to have beneficial results—the rDw-fluids are even the source of the life-giving inundation waters. … These floodwaters are not only the place in which the sun is born each day, but may also be an allusion to the putrefaction of Osiris as the source of the inundation. The mummy not only creates the space for the floodwaters, but also could be the source of the precious liquid.
Dr. Colleen Manassa, The Late Egyptian Underworld 
According to the myth, the Nile inundation had its origin in the exudations of the corpse of Osiris. The inundation is called “rejuvenated water,” and the passage ends by making this expression a name of the deceased himself, for he is indeed Osiris, from whose corpse the inundation flowed. The idea of a cycle is crucial to this association of ideas. With the water, life-fluid is returned to the deceased, life-fluid that has flowed out of him, out of Osiris. The water is a discharge that is returned in the offering. The concept of “rejuvenation” results from this idea of a cycle. …
Egypt symbolized the body of Osiris. When the reuniting and revivification of Osiris were celebrated during the annual Osiris mysteries, Egyptians were reassured of the unity of the land. In this mythic concept, all Egypt constituted the body from which the Nile inundation gushed forth like a bodily humor that brought life. We thus see that a correspondence of microcosm and macrocosm underlay the designation of water as the “discharge of Osiris.” The world–or Egypt, at least–was conceived of as a body, and the water of the Nile as an elixir of life that gushed forth from it. In this system of assigning body parts to parts of the land, the wounded leg belonged to elephantine. This was the place where the life juices flowed out of Osiris and flooded Egypt, giving rise to all the means of life. When it was offered to him in the cult, the water of the inundation, which had flowed out of the body of the slain god, made it possible to restore life to him, as well as to all the dead, who were equated with him.
Dr. Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt 
As for the next text, although it does not concern the inundation, it still demonstrates that the blood and pus of Osiris were understood to give rise to bodies of water.
Then Suty came, his head bowed, forehead touching the earth, (for) he saw what […] had done against him [… the blood] that dripped from his nose. Then Osiris fertilized (the earth with) the blood that came forth in Heracleopolis.
[…] to see Osiris, he found ‹him› seated in his house, his head swollen, because of the burning (of) […Then said Osiris]:
Put pressure on these swellings, forcing blood and putrid pus out of them in the marshland.
Book of the Dead, Spell 175 c S 1-2 
Blood and pus together appear in a positive context in Book of the Dead Chapter 175, which describes the atef-crown injuring the head of Osiris; Re takes the blood and pus from this injury to create the waters of the Faiyum.
Dr. Colleen Manassa, The Late Egyptian Underworld 
This natural metaphor of sediment washing into water and giving it a blood red color is not unique to just the Nile.
A certain Byblian who seemed to be telling the truth gave another explanation. His account was this: ‘The river Adonis, stranger, passes through Lebanon, and Lebanon has very yellow soil. Strong winds which arise on those days carry the earth, which is red in the highest degree, into the river, and it is the earth that makes it bloody. So the reason for the phenomenon is not the blood, as they say, but the terrain.’ So said the man of Byblos; but even if what he said was right, the wind’s timing seemed to me to be miraculous indeed.
Lucian of Samosata, On the Syrian Goddess § 8 
Then did Athene, the clear-eyed, summon up for them a favouring breeze, a brisk following West Wind which thrummed across the wine-dark sea.
Homer, The Odyssey 2.461-62 
The newfound excess of water provided abundant irrigation never before seen in Egypt. And since pus & blood contain organic minerals, the divine emissions provided nourishing fertilization as well. All of this resulted in a surplus of new botanical growth throughout the land, the most desired of which was arguably that of the grapevine. The reason for that is obvious- wine. As such, Osiris was credited as being responsible for this bounty, and as being the source of wine.
Osiris appears … The Lord of wine in flood, his seasons have recognized him, his times have remembered him, and the King is recognized by his seasons with him, his times with him have remembered him.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 577 § 1520, 24 
Behold, Osiris has come as Orion, Lord of Wine in the WAg-festival.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 442 § 820 
Wine was often an important item in funerary and temple cults. From as early as the Old Kingdom, wine was regularly mentioned in offering lists as part of the funerary establishment. In temple rituals, wine was also often offered to various deities. In the pyramid temple of Fifth Dynasty king Sahura, for example, the king was shown offering wine to the goddess Sakhmet. Besides its general significance as an item that pleased the deities, the offering of wine took on certain specific religious and mythological associations. Already in the Pyramid Texts, Osiris was mentioned as the “Lord of Wine in the Wag Festival” (PT Spell 442: §820a). The Wag Festival was celebrated at the beginning of the inundation, on the 17th, 18th, or 19th of Thoth, the first month of inundation. The festival itself was a funerary feast that was probably aimed at the celebration of the resurrection of life that the inundation brought. Since Osiris epitomized resurrection, there may be a certain connection between Osiris as the god of vegetation and rejuvenation and the symbolic coming to life of the grapevine. The fact that wine production depended upon the coming of the inundation might therefore have fostered the meaning of wine as a symbol of life and rejuvenation. A text in the Ptolemaic temple of Edfu contains the following sentence: “The vineyard flourishes in Edfu, the inundation rejoices at what is in it. It bears fruit with more grapes than [the sand of] the riverbanks. They [the grapes] are made into wine for your storage . . . .” (Chassinat and Rochemonteix: Edfou VII: 278). Thus the relationship between the inundation and the production of wine is clearly stated.
Dr. Mu-chou Poo, in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology 
So his blood turned the Nile waters red like wine, and because it irrigated the grapes, those same bloody waters literally became wine. This led to the belief that the blood of Osiris turned water into wine. Hence the deceased Egyptians, who identified with Osiris, say:
You gods, my water is wine like that of Re.
Pyramid Text Utterance 210 § 130 
This is echoed in the Book of the Dead:
N.’s flood is in the Field of Offerings. His gifts are among (you, O) gods; N.’s water ‹is› wine ‹like› Re(‘s). … Triumphant is Osiris N.
Book of the Dead, Spell 178 f S 2 
Not only the Nile, but every form of moisture they call simply the effusion of Osiris; and in their holy rites the water jar in honour of the god heads the procession. … They regard the Nile as the effusion of Osiris … Waters that flow through a mountainous and stony country are clearer than those of the marshes and plains, since they do not carry off much earth. The Nile, encompassed by soft terrain, or rather interspersed through it as blood is through flesh, has the benefit of its sweetness, and is filled with fluids that are heavy and nourishing; but in its flow it is impure and turbid. If it is roiled, this is even more the case, for motion mixes mud and liquid, but when the river is quiet the mud sinks and disappears, because of its weight. This is why they draw water at night, but also in order to anticipate the sun, which by continually evaporating the finest and lightest element in the liquid, causes deterioration.
Plutarch, Moralia 365B, 366A, 725 
Even the “church fathers” of the aforementioned “Good Shepherd” have acknowledged the reality of these phenomena of the Nile.
The inhabitants of Egypt worship water, supplicate water, venerate water with an everlasting series of superstitious vows. … Osiris is worshipped and Typhon is shunned. … Vain is your supposition that this water which you worship is at times of benefit to you. Quite another thing is the water by which human beings are renewed and reborn. This water which you worship every year—why, a different power dries it up by overheating the channels of its veins; or at any rate the calamitous blood of your king [Osiris] befouls it.
Firmicus Maternus, The Error of the Pagan Religions 2.1-5 
When the water was made wine, was performed on about the same eleventh day thirty years later. And even to this day this happens in many places as a testimony to unbelievers because of the miracle which was wrought at that time, as streams and rivers in many localities testify by being changed to wine. The stream at Cibyre, the chief city of Caria [bears witness] at the same time of day at which the servants drew the water … And the stream at Gerasa in Arabia testifies in the same way. ‹I› have drunk from the ‹one at› Cibyre ‹myself›, and my brethren have drunk from the stream in the martyrium at Gerasa. And in Egypt too many give this testimony of the Nile. Thus in Egypt itself, and in many countries, everyone draws water on the eleventh of the Egyptian month Tybi, and stores it up.
Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion § 51, 29.7-30.3 
And academia affirms this as well, of course.
The inundation of the Nile, which made the Nile so crucial to the survival of Egypt, is caused by rains which fall in Central Africa and by the melting snow and the rainfall from the Ethiopian highlands. By the end of May, the river Nile was at its lowest level in Egypt. During the month of June the Nile, between the first cataracts and Heliopolis, began to rise and some greenish water appeared at this time. During later July and August the river rose rapidly and its waters assumed a reddish, muddy color, which was due to the presence of red earth brought into the Nile by two rivers, the Blue Nile and the Atbara River.
Dr. Rivka Ulmer, Egyptian Cultural Icons in Midrash 
Wine was a prestigious drink; it was used in religious rituals as an offering to Egyptian deities, and scenes of wine-offerings are ubiquitous on temple walls of all periods. In the Pyramid Texts, Osiris was mentioned as the “Lord of Wine,” presumably from his relationship with the annual inundation of the Nile, the seasonal revival of vegetation in general, and the vine in particular. Many Greco-Roman authors noted that the color of the Nile was red during the inundation, and a story mentioned that the Nile water once turned into wine—most likely a mythological interpretation of a natural phenomenon caused by the iron-rich red alluvium washed into the Nile from the Atbara branch during the flood season. … Wine in daily life was an enjoyable drink, whereas in myth and theology it was symbolic of blood and the power of rejuvenation.
Dr. Mu-chou Poo, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt: Volume 3 
As Greek and Roman authors noted, the Nile water turned red during the inundation, which suggests the color of wine. … The color of wine, when it was red, and even disregarding its association with the mythological story, already suggested an association with blood and the life-giving force of nature. As this association was not limited to ancient Egyptian culture, it is all the more possible to believe that the symbolic association of wine and blood did exist in Egypt.
Dr. Mu-chou Poo, in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology 
The grape harvest started just before the summer flooding season (Akhet) which occurred in the middle of July. The reappearance of the star Sothis in the sky (about 18th of July) announced that soon the Nile flooding, which would give great fertility to the land was going to arrive. For this reason, ancient Egyptians related the grape harvest and the new season’s winemaking with the Nile flooding. At these times the Nile water acquired a reddish colour due to the ferrous alluvium of the Blue Nile and the Atbara rivers coming from the Ethiopian land. The Nile flood was related to the resurrection of the god Osiris who, according to mythology was found dead in the Nile after being killed by his brother Seth. The blood of Osiris was related with the new season’s wine. Wine symbolism is first documented in the Pyramid Texts of the Fifth Dynasty. Osiris was the first god who returned to life and like him Egyptians had to be resurrected after death in order to progress to the afterlife. As can be seen in the Theban tomb of Sennefer, the tomb ceiling has been decorated with a painted vine symbolizing the rebirth of the dead. The grapes and the wine were considered the symbol of resurrection.
Dr. Maria R. Guasch et al., in Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Egyptologists: Volume 1 
When the inundation arrives the water becomes reddish and assails these dykes like a young man in love, as the texts put it. At particular spots all along the river, cuttings are made to allow the silt-charged water to spread over the plain. Plutarch remarked that ‘the waters of the flood mingle with the soil like blood with flesh’. Like a living body, the Nile is bled throughout its length, a kind of ‘pelican that pierces its own flanks to feed its young’.
Dr. Jean L. Kérisel, The Nile and Its Masters: Past, Present, Future 
The annual inundation amazed the Egyptians, who had no explanation for the river’s sudden great swelling, nor the change in its color from red to green. At first the silt suspended in the water caused the Nile to look red, and the slow moving vegetation floating on top made it look green.
Patricia Remler, Egyptian Mythology: A to Z 
The water of the inundation was also association with red wine.
Dr. László Török, Between Two Worlds 
It is the dismemberment of the body of Osiris and its scattering all over Egypt that conveys associations with ritual fertilizing of the land. Blood was transubstantiated into water and water enveloped the earth to penetrate it and create new life. The red hue of the river, brought on by oxide sediments during the inundation, to this day is compared with blood. Was this the blood of Osiris? … Life was reborn from the saturated, black earth. Osiris came back, his flesh as green as the plants in the valley. The mystery of creation was enacted every year since the beginning of time. This was “the form of Him whom one may not name, Osiris of the Mysteries, who springs from the returning waters.”
Dr. Bojana Mojsov, Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God 
Wine is called ‘the blood of Osiris’, a process of transubstantiation.
Dr. John G. Griffiths, Apuleius of Madauron: The Isis-Book 
Hence the blood of Osiris was ritualistically consumed in the form of wine by the Egyptians who emulated him that they might partake of his nature and have eternal life.
My blood is drunk, (even) my redness.
Coffin Texts, Spell 394 V, 67 
You eldest son of Geb … He who presides over Khem raises you and has given a t-wr loaf and this grape-juice.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 610 § 1710, 23 
O Osiris the King, your mouth is split open by means of it–2 bowls of Lower Egyptian wine.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 153 § 92 
O Osiris the King, your mouth is split open with that of which you have full measure–wine, a hATs-jar of white mnw-stone.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 48 § 36 
O Osiris the King, provide yourself with the ferment(?) which issued from you–2 bowls of sxpt-drink.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 149 § 90 
O Osiris the King, provide yourself with the ferment(?) which issued from you–2 bowls of px(A)-drink.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 150 § 90 
Take the ferment(?) which issued from Osiris–2 jars of Hbt-drink.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 183 § 105 
O my father the King, take the ferment(?) which issued from Osiris.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 202 § 117 
While the next two spells are not funerary texts and are from late papyri (though the contents are earlier), they likewise continue in the tradition of all the afore-cited scriptures of equating wine with the blood of Osiris at his death. And they do so most explicitly.
I am this figure of One drowned, that testifieth by writing, that resteth on the other side [?] here under the great offering-table of Abydos; as to which the blood of Osiris bore witness to her [?] name of Isis when it was poured into the cup, this wine. Give it, blood of Osiris that he gave to Isis to make her feel love in her heart for him night and day at any time, there not being time of deficiency. Give it, the blood of [name] born of [name] to give it to [name] born of [name] in this cup, this bowl of wine to-day, to cause her to feel love for him in her heart, the love that Isis felt for Osiris, when she was seeking him everywhere.
The London-Leiden Magical Papyrus, Col. XV § 12-17 
You are wine; you are not wine, but the guts of Osiris.
Greek Magical Papyrus VII.645-46 
In summary, it was believed that the blood of Osiris turned water into wine, and that, as the source of water for the grapevine, ultimately his blood literally became wine as well. Thus wine became a symbol for his blood. Now while on the subject of wine, the Egyptians didn’t always make their wine out of grapes. There is a different wine which they actually invented, a wine that has become arguably the most significant contribution of Egypt to world culture. That wine being wine made out of grains. Today it is more commonly known as beer. As an Egyptian form of wine, beer too was said to be produced from the bodily fluids of Osiris.
These Egyptians eat bread made from spelt, and they call these loaves kyllestis. The wine they drink is made from barley.
Herodotus, Histories 2.77.4 
Their beer is wine.
Book of Gates, 7th Hour, Scene 43 (16th-11th cen. BCE) 
O Flood, I have come to you that you may give me bread when I am hungry and give me beer when I am thirsty.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 494 § 1063 
You have your water, you have your inundation, you have your bzn–grain.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 424 § 774 
O Osiris the King, take the ferment(?) which issued from you—beer.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 49 § 37 
Your beer has flooded in, even the efflux of which came out of Osiris.
Coffin Texts, Spell 68 I, 291 
This grain and beer was said to be red in color, just like wine, also likely signifying the color of the very blood from which it was produced.
May you swallow beer of red emmer at the pure place.
Coffin Texts, Spell 225 III, 236 
My beer is of red barley.
Book of the Dead, Spell 52 b S 2 
[I] sip beer [of] red [wheat] of the Inundation in the pure place.
Book of the Dead, Spell 68 S 4 
The color of the Nile during inundation, furthermore, suggests the color of wine, or the red-colored beer.
Dr. Muchou Poo, Wine and Wine Offering in the Religions of Ancient Egypt 
The yearly celebration at Dendera coincided with the inundation of the Nile during the summer, when reddish, iron-rich soils were washed down from the Atbara River in the Sudan, giving the waters the appearance of red beer. … Papyri and inscriptions refer to many different kinds of ancient Egyptian beer, including dark beer, sweet beer, iron beer (perhaps distinctively colored red?).
Dr. Patrick E. McGovern, Uncorking the Past: The Quest for Wine, Beer, and Other Alcoholic Beverages 
Egyptian texts speak of sweet beer, red beer—the most common—and black beer, which must have been the most alcoholic.
Dr. Edda Bresciani, in Food: A Culinary History from Antiquity to the Present 
Both barley and wheat beers were brewed in this manner, sometimes with such additives as date juice for a sweetener or red dye for special holidays.
Dr. Bob Brier and Dr. A. Hoyt Hobbs, Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians 
Needless to say at this point, this red barley wine, or red beer, was used as an alternative to grape wine in those same aforementioned rituals of identifying the Egyptian with Osiris, in which they drank his blood.
O Osiris the King, take the ferment(?) which issued from you–beer, a Hnt-bowl of black mnw-stone.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 49 § 37 
O King, take the ferment(?) which issued from Osiris–beer, a Hnt-bowl of black mnw-stone.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 55 § 39 
I provide you with the ferment(?) which issued from you--a jar of beer.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 95 § 64 
O Osiris the King, provide yourself with the ferment(?) which issued from you–2 bowls of beer.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 148 § 90 
O Osiris the King, provide yourself with the ferment(?) which issued from you–2 bowls of Nubian beer.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 151 § 91 
O Osiris the King, take the water which is in you–I give Horus to you–[2(?)] jars of Tnm-beer.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 184 § 106 
Raise yourself to this bread of yours which knows no mouldiness and your beer which knows no sourness, that you have a soul thereby, that you may be effective thereby, that you may be powerful thereby.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 457 § 859 
May you live on bread of red emmer, may you swallow beer of red emmer at the pure place.
Coffin Texts, Spell 225 III, 236 
I write the news: a thousand of bread and beer on the altars of my father Osiris.
Coffin Texts, Spell 278 III, 281-82 
My bread is in Pe and my beer in Dep, and this power of mine belongs to me. My power is bread and beer, my power is life, prosperity, and health.
Coffin Texts, Spell 404 V, 198 
I live on bread of white wheat, and my beer is of red barley.
Book of the Dead, Spell 52 b 2 
I live in bread of red wheat of the Inundation in the pure place; [I] sip beer [of] red [wheat] of the Inundation in the pure place.
Book of the Dead, Spell 68 S 4 
Because my bread is of white wheat and (my) beer of red ‹barley›.
Book of the Dead, Spell 102 b S 
Because (my) bread is of white wheat and my beer of red ‹barley›.
Book of the Dead, Spell 124 b S 
O Osiris, I am thy son Horus. I have come; I have made thy bread in Pe of red wheat. O Osiris, I am thy son Horus. I have come; I have made thy beer in Dep of white barley.
Book of the Dead, Spell 173 b 4 
I live on bread of white wheat and beer of red barley.
Book of the Dead, Spell 189 b S 2 
This is no doubt very comparable to the much later story of a Levantine “Good Shepherd,” who likewise broke bread and poured wine to be consumed by his followers as symbols of his flesh & blood that they might partake of his nature and have eternal life. Egyptologist Bojana Mojsov agrees:
 Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 143.
 Ibid. 153.
 Ibid. 205.
 Ibid. 213.
 Ibid. 281.
 Ibid. 289.
 Ibid. 292.
 Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Vol. II (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1977), 5.
 Ibid. 121.
 Ibid. 245.
 Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Vol. III (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1978), 22.
 Thomas G. Allen, The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 146.
 Ibid. 158.
 Ibid. 219.
 Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001-05), 359-60.
 Harco Willems, The Coffin of Heqata (Cairo JdE 36418): A Case Study of Egyptian Funerary Culture of the Early Middle Kingdom (Leuven: Peeters Publishers, 1996), 138.
 John D. Ray, Reflections of Osiris: Lives from Ancient Egypt (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 156.
 Colleen Manassa, The Late Egyptian Underworld: Sarcophagi and Related Texts from the Nectanebid Period (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz GmbH & Co. KG, 2007), 66, 373.
 Assmann (2001-05), 358, 361.
 T.G. Allen (1974), 184-85.
 Manassa (2007), 47 n.244.
 Lucian of Samosata, On the Syrian Goddess, in Lucian: On the Syrian Goddess, trans. J.L. Lightfoot (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 251-53.
 Homer, The Odyssey, in The Odyssey of Homer, trans. T.E. Lawrence (New York: Oxford University Press, 1932-91), 26. (Emph. added.)
 Faulkner (1969), 232-33. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 147. (Emph. added.)
 Faulkner (1969), 39. (Emph. added.)
 T.G. Allen (1974), 187. (Emph. added.)
 Plutarch, Moralia, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume V, trans. F.C. Babbitt, (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936-62), 87, 93. (Emph. added.)
Plutarch, Moralia, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume IX, trans. P.A. Clement and H.B. Hoffleit (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 157. (Emph. added.)
 Firmicus Maternus, The Error of the Pagan Religions, trans. C.A. Forbes (New York: Newman Press, 1970) 44-45, 146 n.30. (Emph. added.)
 Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion, in The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, Books II and III. De Fide, trans. F. Williams (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 1994-2013), 62. (Emph. added.)
 Rivka Ulmer, Egyptian Cultural Icons in Midrash (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, 2009), 52. (Emph. added.)
 Mu-chou Poo, “Wine,” in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt: Volume 3, ed. D.B. Redford (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 503. (Emph. added.)
 Poo (2010), 2. (Emph. added.)
 Maria R. Guasch et al., “Scientific Research on Archaeological Residues from Ancient Egyptian Wines,” in Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta: Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Egyptologists: Volume 1, eds. J.C. Goyon, C. Cardin (Leuven: Peeters Publishers, 2007), 851-52. (Emph. added.)
 Jean L. Kérisel, The Nile and Its Masters: Past, Present, Future, trans. P. Cockle (Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema Publishers, 1999-2001), 38. (Emph. added.)
 Patricia Remler, Egyptian Mythology: A to Z (New York: Chelsea House, 2000-10), viii.
 László Török, Between Two Worlds: The Frontier Region between Ancient Nubia and Egypt 3700 BC – 500 AD (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2009), 4.
 Bojana Mojsov, Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005), 7-8.
 John G. Griffiths, Apuleius of Madauron: The Isis-Book (Metamorphosis, Book XI) (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1975), 316-17.
 Faulkner (1977), 19.
 Faulkner (1969), 253-54. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 30. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 10. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 30. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 34. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 37. (Emph. added.)
 This especially applies to the first one, The London-Leiden Magical Papyrus. See Dr. John M. Hull, Hellenistic Magic and the Synoptic Tradition (London: SCM Press, 1974), 25-26. “Behind the Greek lay an even older Egyptian original. … The written forms lying behind the present redaction of the papyrus are therefore roughly late first century AD with older fragments, and the magical procedures are very much older in some cases.” (Emph. added.)
 Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic (New York: Quill, 1980-2001), 288. (Emph. added.)
 Papyri Graecae Magicae, VII.643-51, in The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Including the Demotic Spells, Volume One: Texts, Second Edition, ed. H.D. Betz, trans. E.N. O’Neil (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1986-96), 136.
 Herodotus, Histories, in The Landmark Herodotus: The Histories, ed. R.B. Strassler, trans. A.L. Purvis (New York: Anchor Books, 2009), 150, n.2.77.4b.
 Erik Hornung and Theodor Abt, The Egyptian Book of Gates (Zurich: Living Human Heritage Publications, 2014), 140.
 Faulkner (1969), 176. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 141. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 10. (Emph. added.)
 Faulkner (1973), 65.
 Ibid. 117. (Emph. added.)
 T.G. Allen (1974), 52. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 62. (Emph. added.)
 Muchou Poo, Wine and Wine Offering in the Religions of Ancient Egypt (London: Kegan Paul International, 1995-2009), 157. (Emph. added.)
 Patrick E. McGovern, Uncorking the Past: The Quest for Wine, Beer, and Other Alcoholic Beverages (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009), 246. (Emph. added.)
 Edda Bresciani, “Food Culture in Ancient Egypt,” in Food: A Culinary History from Antiquity to the Present, eds. J.L. Flandrin, M. Montanari, and A. Sonnenfeld, trans. C. Botsford et al. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996-99), 40. (Emph. added.)
 Bob Brier and A. Hoyt Hobbs, Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2008), 112. (Emph. added.)
 Faulkner (1969), 10. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 11. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 22. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 29. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 152. (Emph. added.)
 Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Vol. I (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1973), 177.
 Ibid. 181. (Emph. added.)
 See BOTD Spell 173 b 4.
 Faulkner (1977), 50. (Emph. added.)
 T.G. Allen (1974), 52.
 Ibid. 62. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 83.
 Ibid. 96.
 Ibid. 182.
 Ibid. 211.