Welcome to the fifth and final installment in this series. I’d like to begin by referring back to Part 1, in which it was established that Osiris was one of the lunar gods of ancient Egypt, in particular the god of the moon during the spring season. In light of this fact about Osiris, many motifs in his mythos become conspicuous in how they parallel with lunar phenomena. One such phenomenon is the new moon phase of a lunar cycle. This occurs when, as per our terrestrial perspective, the moon moves closer in proximity to the sun in our sky, thus reflecting less and less of the sun’s light as it wanes (i.e. “dies). Eventually the moon is on the same side of the earth as the sun (and occasionally they are in perfect alignment, resulting in a solar eclipse). This is sometimes referred to as the solar-lunar conjunction.
When this occurs, the moon reflects no sunlight that is visible here on earth, thus covering the moon entirely in darkness (i.e. “burying” it). To the naked eyes of any human observers, this burial of the moon in darkness traditionally looked like it lasted for a period of three days, then a tiny sliver of a crescent moon becomes visible (i.e. “alive”) once again.
The moon first appears on the third day, it becomes visible as full moon on the sixteenth. It wanes the remaining time (of the month) during 13 days.
Heraclitus of Ephesus, Commentary on Odyssey XX, Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 3710 col. iii, 7-11 (6th-5th cen. BCE) 
It indicates fair weather if the outline of the moon on the third day is bright.
Theophrastus of Eresus, On Weather Signs 51 (4th cen. BCE) 
From them thou canst learn touching the month that is begun. If she is slender and clear about the third day, she heralds calm: if slender and very ruddy, wind; but if thick and with blunted horns she show but a feeble light on the third and fourth night, her beams are blunted by the South wind or imminent rain. If on the third night neither horn nod forward or lean backward, if vertical they curve their tips on either side, winds from the West will follow that night. … The signs of the half Moon are followed by those of the fourth day from the end of the waning month, and they in their turn by those of the third day of the new month.
Aratus of Soli, Phaenomena 780-810 (3rd cen. BCE)
Numerous reports trace the day on which the moon disappears (UD.NÁ.A, ūm bubbuli). According to SAA VII §346, the moon ideally vanishes on day 27 and remains covered for a maximum period of three days.
Dr. Jonathan Ben-Dov, Head of All Years: Astronomy and Calendars at Qumran in Their Ancient Context 
The Sun is always the same, but the Moon’s appearance to us on Earth changes – waxing, waning, disappearing, then returning after three nights.
Hamish Lindsay, Tracking Apollo to the Moon 
The Moon then disappears for about three days, lost in the light of the Sun at the new moon.
Robin Heath, Sun, Moon, & Earth 
The Moon is in turn a symbol of death and resurrection, the eternal recurrence. The Moon remains the high symbol of the dead and resurrecting god … three days in the tomb, just as the Moon is three days dark.
Joseph Campbell, Myths of Light: Eastern Metaphors of the Eternal 
Observation of the four pillars on mountain Picchu enabled the Incas to define the day when the sun sets in the anti-Zenith position and a monthlong period around the date of August 18. With this observation they fixed within the solar year a synodic lunar year of twelve months counted from June 6, starting with three days of invisible moon.
Dr. R. Tom Zuidema, in Archaeoatronomy in the New World: American 
The Yolngu people call the Moon Ngalindi and he too travels across the sky. Originally, he was a fat lazy man (corresponding to the full Moon) for which he was punished by his wives, who chopped bits off him with their axes, producing the waning Moon. He managed to escape by climbing a tall tree to follow the Sun, but was mortally wounded, and died (the new Moon). After remaining dead for 3 days, he rose again, growing round and fat (the waxing Moon), until, after two weeks his wives attacked him again. The cycle continues to repeat every month. Until Ngalindi first died, everyone on Earth was immortal, but he cursed humans and animals so that only he could return to life. For everyone else, death would thereafter be final.
The Arnhem Land stories go much further, even explaining why the Moon is associated with tides. When the tides are high, water fills the Moon as it rises. As the water runs out of the Moon, the tides fall, leaving the Moon empty for three days. Then the tide rises once more, refilling the Moon. So, although the mechanics are a little different from our modern version, the Yolngu people obviously had an excellent understanding of the motions of the Moon, and its relationship to the tides.
Dr. Ray P. Norris, in Astronomy and Cosmology in Folk Traditions and Cultural Heritage 
This death, burial, and resurrection of the moon is something even the “early church fathers” of the so-called Good Shepherd’s religion acknowledged and used it as a metaphor for the resurrection promised in their holy scriptures.
If you wish to behold a still more marvelous sight, taking place to provide proof of resurrection not only from matters on earth but also from those in heaven, consider the monthly resurrection of the moon, how it wanes, dies, and rises again.
Theophilus of Antioch, Ad Autolycum 1.13 
Readorned also are the mirrors of the moon, which her monthly course had worn away. … The whole, therefore, of this revolving order of things bears witness to the resurrection of the dead.
Tertullian of Carthage, De Resurrectione Carnis XII 
Take further a manifest proof of the resurrection of the dead, witnessed month by month in the sky and its luminaries. The body of the moon vanishes completely, so that no part of it is any more seen, yet it fills again, and is restored to its former state; and for the perfect demonstration of the matter, the moon at certain revolutions of years suffering eclipse and becoming manifestly changed into blood, yet recovers its luminous body: God having provided this, that thou also, the man who art formed of blood, mightest not refuse credence to the resurrection of the dead, but mightest believe concerning thyself also what thou seest in respect of the moon.
Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture XVIII.10 
And wouldn’t you know it, the New Moon phase is said to be the time frame during which Osiris’ burial & resurrection take place.
Osiris the King … may you be manifest at the New Moon.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 483 § 1012 (27th-22nd century BCE) 
O you Sole One who shines as the moon.
Coffin Texts, Spell 93 II, 64 (21st-18th century BCE) 
O you Sole One who rises in the moon, O you Sole One who shines in the moon.
Coffin Texts, Spell 152 II, 260 
KNOWING THE SOULS OF THE NEW MOON, ENTERING INTO THE HOUSE OF OSIRIS OF DJEDU.
Coffin Texts, Spell 155 II, 308 
(O) Osiris … (Where, pray, art thou on blacked-out-moon day while the corpse is silent?)
Book of the Dead, Spell 64 variant S 18 (16th-11th century BCE) 
Hi, Osiris. … Thou dawnest as the Moon.
Book of the Dead, Spell 162 variant S 2 
August Mummy, Osiris … Raise thyself, Moon that circles the Two Lands.
Book of the Dead, Spell Pleyte 168 S 52, 54 
May I renew my youth like the moon.
Inscription of the Statue of Montemhet from Karnak § 11 (7th cen. BCE) 
Moreover, at the time of the new moon in the month of Phamenoth they celebrate a festival to which they give the name of “Osiris’s coming of the Moon,” and this marks the beginning of the spring. Thus they make the power of Osiris to be fixed in the Moon.
Plutarch, Moralia 368A (1st cen. CE)
Even after he initially died, the body of Osiris could not rest in peace. It endured many trials- decomposition, dismemberment, reconstitution, seventy days of mummification, suspension upon a tree for seven months, etc. But eventually, after going through all of that, Osiris was finally laid to rest in his tomb. This involved many funerary rites which became annual holidays, such as a great procession with the singing of lamentation hymns, and most importantly, the reciting of the magical spells of the holy scriptures which were inscribed on the tomb walls and coffins.
We must assume that the Pyramid Texts are an exact replica, on the subterranean walls of the tomb, of the texts recited during the mummification and burial rituals.
Dr. Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs 
The texts were inscribed to be read from the burial chamber to the antechamber, understood as the ‘horizon’, and would have accompanied the deceased pharaoh from the tomb to the sun, a journey also symbolized by the architecture.
Dr. Andrea Vianello, in Cognitive Archaeology as Symbolic Archaeology 
2371-2350 King Unas includes the first known Pyramid Texts (spells recited during the royal funeral) carved inside his pyramid at Saqqara.
Dr. Edward Bleiberg, Arts & Humanities Through the Eras: Ancient Egypt 2675-322 B.C.E. 
Most believe that the spells are intended to be read from the antechamber inward, concluding with the burial chamber. This order is logical if the spells were to be recited by the priests at the time that the body of the pharaoh was carried into the burial chamber.
Dr. Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic 
The day of the burial was traditionally the day the magical spells and rituals of the tomb were performed. Osiris did not remain in this tomb for long, however, for the primary objective of these spells was to raise him (and those deceased Egyptians who identified with him in their last rites) from the dead. The texts state that this occurred on the third day after this burial in the tomb.
Raise yourself as Osiris … the three-day festival is celebrated for you, you are pure for the New Moon, your appearing is for the monthly festival.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 437 § 793-94 (27th-22nd century BCE) 
Raise yourself, Osiris the King … May you be pure at the monthly festival, may you be manifest at the New Moon, may the three-day festival be celebrated for you.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 483 § 1012 
O my father Osiris the King … Awake, [stand up(?) at yonder] eastern [side] of the sky at this place [where the gods] are born, [when there comes this time of tomorrow and this time of the third day; my father the King] will be born [on] yonder eastern side of [the sky] where the gods are born, when there comes this time of tomorrow and this time of the third day.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 556 § 1382-84 
Raise yourself, you eldest son of Geb … for whom the three-day festival is celebrated! May you appear for the monthly festival, may you be pure for the New Moon festival.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 610 § 1710-11 
O King, there comes this time of tomorrow and this time of three days; a stairway to the sky is [set up] for you among the Imperishable Stars.
Pyramid Texts, Utterance 667 § 1941 
These three days were remembered in ritual, as recorded on the Stela of Ikhernofret, 19th century BCE. On the first day of the Great Procession, Osiris was buried in his tomb. There he remained through the next day, the night of the Haker Festival, when Horus finally defeated Seth. And there Osiris continued to remain on into the following day after that, the third day of burial- the day on which he was resurrected and brought into his temple.
After the chest was buried the death of the god was mourned for three days and nights. … The festival culminated with the celebration of the resurrection. The pillar of Osiris – the ancient symbol of the harvesters – was erected in the temple court to the jubilant rejoicing of the assembled crowds and the living image of the resurrected one brought out on a portable boat and displayed. The Egyptian phrase for a religious festival was “god’s appearance.” Merriment and dancing concluded the weeklong gathering. Ikernofret, an official at the court of Senusret III, wrote the earliest account of the festival.
Dr. Bojana Mojsov, Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God 
An orgy lasting for three days was centered around a funerary feast to Osiris, who was called “The Lord of wine through [or during] the inundation,” a title that had first been applied to this resurrection and fertility god in the Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts.
Dr. Patrick E. McGovern, Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins of Viniculture 
The text is of unusual interest because it provides an account, albeit a veiled one, of the annually performed “mysteries of Osiris.” Holding high office under Sesostris III, Ikhernofret was charged with the organization of the annual festival of the god in which the statue of Osiris journeyed between his temple and his tomb amid scenes of combat which reenacted the god’s kingship, death, and resurrection.
Dr. Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms 
I acted according to everything His majesty commanded in making effective what my lord commanded for his father, Osiris-Foremost-of-the-Westerners, lord of Abydos, the great powerful one within the Thinite Nome. I performed (the duty of) “his beloved son” for Osiris-Foremost-of-the-Westerners, I making effective (for him?) the great (barque?), eternal and enduring. … I assigned the hourly priests of the temples to carry out their duties and I had them know the rituals of each day and the festivals of the beginnings of the year.
Stela of Ikhernofret § 10-14 
Ikhernofret mentions “the rituals that pertain to each day and the festivals at the start of the seasons.” Each day evidently had its ritual requirements.
Dr. Martyn Smith, Religion, Culture, and Sacred Space 
So on the first day of the festival, Osiris was buried:
I conducted the great procession following the god at his footsteps. I caused the god’s barque to sail on, with Thoth leading the voyage. … I cleared the god’s paths to his cenotaph tomb in front of Poqer.
Stela of Ikhernofret § 18-20 
The “Great Procession” in the Neshmet-barque: … What is described here is the funeral procession of Osiris.
Dr. Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt 
On the second day, he was avenged by Horus:
I avenged Wen-nofer on that day of the great fighting, and I felled all his enemies on the sand banks of Nedit.
Stela of Ikhernofret § 21 
“That day of battle” alludes to the contending of Horus and Seth, that part of the festival drama which is called “the night of the battling Horus” or “the night of the Haker festival” in other texts. In the mortuary cult, this night corresponds to the “night of vindication,” when the Judgment of the Dead occurred at the conclusion of the embalming process. On this night, a wake was held.
Dr. Assmann, op cit. 
And on the third day, Osiris rises from the dead and returns to his palace:
I had him proceed within the Great Barque and it carried his beauty, gladdening the eastern deserts and [creating] joy in the heart of the western deserts when they saw the beauties of the neshmet-barque as it put to land at Abydos and as it brought back [Osiris-Foremost-of-the-Westerners, lord of] Abydos to his palace. And I followed the god into his temple, his puriﬁcation done, his throne widened.
Stela of Ikhernofret § 22-24 
The last act of the festival was the return of the god to the temple. Just as the procession to U-poqer was celebrated as a funeral procession and the night spent there as the “night of vindication,” so the return was interpreted as a triumphal entry of the vindicated and resurrected Osiris into his palace.
Assmann, op cit. 
A series of processions at Abydos was carried out in proper order: ‘I conducted the Great Procession, following the god in his steps … in his beautiful regalia he proceeded to the domain of Peqer … I made him enter the Great Barque … it brought [Osiris] to his palace.’ This ritual sequence, often referred to as the ‘Mysteries of Osiris’, appears to be a form of passion play, re-enacting the death and rebirth of Osiris in a mythical environment.
Dr. Steven Snape, Ancient Egyptian Tombs: The Culture of Life and Death 
Note there that Osiris’ bodily resurrection occurred in his tomb- here on Earth, and that his resurrected body returned to his palace in Abydos- a city here, on Earth, as thoroughly covered in a previous article.
Anyway, recall from Part 2 of this series how that Osiris’ role as god of the springtime moon by extension made him a god of the springtime grain. Due to this fact, many motifs in his mythos not only correlate with the cycles of the moon, but also correlate with the cycles of grain crops, especially barley and wheat. Well, it just so happens that Egyptian barley was said to likewise rise from out of the earth on the third day after being buried- just like Osiris.
Barley in Egypt is said to come up on the third day.
Theophrastus of Eresus, Enquiry into Plants 8.1.6 (4th cen. BCE)
In Egypt leguminous plants emerge on the third day. In barley one end of the grain sends out a root and the other a blade, which flowers before the other corn.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 28.10 (1st cen. CE) 
Brilliance for your barley … when grain grows, Osiris emerges.
Book of Gates, 7th Hour, Scene 46 (16th-11th cen. BCE) 
Osiris is being buried at the time when the grain is sown and covered in the earth and that he comes to life and reappears when plants begin to sprout.
Plutarch, Moralia 377B
This is quite similar to the holy feasts of the Good Shepherd’s religion, especially those which allegedly symbolize his death & resurrection. His ancestors had a multi-day feast celebrating the time they were passed over by Death, which was when Mr. Good Shepherd was later buried. Then on the third day his ancestors celebrated the Feast of the First-Fruits of grain, in which they reaped their first crop of barley as an offering to begin the harvest season, which also happened to be the day of Good Shepherd’s resurrection.
Now at this point it is perhaps necessary to address the likelihood that some antagonists will attempt to claim that the new moon phase ‘does not count’ since it is not a full 72 hours. Such an objection is ignorant of the method of time measurement known as inclusive reckoning, which was in heavy use in ancient times, and is still used in certain areas of the world even today. And it was most certainly used by Mr. Good Shepherd and others in his scriptures, and was also used in ancient Egypt. Inclusive reckoning includes a unit of time in the sum total so long as any portion of the unit falls within the stretch of time being measured. Thus an event that overlaps 3 calendar days is counted as three days, even if the overlap does not include all 24 hours of the first or last day. By inclusive reckoning, a newborn infant is classified as a 1 year old, since the child is already in the first year of his/her life, even though it is only the 1st rather than the 365th day of said year. Inclusive reckoning is how Mr. Good Shepherd claimed to rise from the dead after three days even though it was likewise not a full 72 hours, for he was buried on a Friday evening- day 1, remained there through Saturday- day 2, and then resurrected on Sunday morning- day 3.
Inclusive reckoning ê noun a method of counting in which both the first and last term is counted ¬ by inclusive reckoning, Easter Sunday is the third day after Good Friday.
Chambers 21st Century Dictionary 
There are also stories in this folklore in which the inclusive reckoning method is laid out in unambiguous terms, as the scriptures state- “I cast out devils, and I do cures to day and to morrow, and the third day I shall be perfected.” Other such scriptures say- “he hath smitten, and he will bind us up. After two days will he revive us: in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight.” In the same manner, the texts of ancient Egypt used such unambiguous language to indicate inclusive reckoning.
Come and pass the day in happiness,
Tomorrow, and the day after tomorrow,
Even for three days, sitting beneath my shade.
The Turin Love Songs: Songs of the Orchard 
So today + tomorrow + “the day after” = “three days.” The afore-cited Pyramid Texts were just as clear, explicitly stating “this time of tomorrow and this time of the third day.” To bring this point to a close, the ancient usage of inclusive reckoning can also be seen in the following scholarly examples.
26 Post diem tertium: 17 March (see Phil. 1.1. die n.), which was the third day after the murder of Caesar on the 15th by inclusive reckoning, ‘two days later’ in our parlance.
Dr. John T. Ramsey, Cicero: Philippics I-II 
“I think it’s pretty remarkable that so many men of such intelligence, after so many years, still can’t make up their minds whether to say ‘on the third day’* or ‘the day after tomorrow’” …
*The Romans used inclusive reckoning; we would say “on the second day.”
Cicero and Dr. James E.G. Zetzel, in Cicero: Ten Speeches 
Celsus draws attention to the use of inclusive reckoning when he states that ‘the 11th day is not the fourth but the fifth after the 7th’ .
Dr. William F. Richardson, Numbering and Measuring in the Classical World: An Introductory Handbook 
By the system of inclusive reckoning, when one states “two years ago” one means, in effect, “last year.”
Dr. Tim G. Parkin, Old Age in the Roman World: A Cultural and Social History 
It is incontestable- Osiris was believed to have risen from the dead on the third day after his burial, and this belief existed for many centuries before the Good Shepherd came along. Thus concludes the final portion of the Lunar Osiris Easter Special. I hope you all have a better understanding and newfound appreciation for this holiday season.
‘Til next time:
 Andrei V. Lebedev, The Logos of Heraclitus: a Reconstruction of his Thought and Word (St. Petersburg: Nauka Publishers, 2014), 31. (Emph. added.)
 Theophrastus of Eresus, On Weather Signs 51, in Theophrastus: Enquiry Into Plants and Minor Works on Odours and Weather Signs, Vol. II, trans. A. Hort (London: William Heinemann, 1916), 427. (Emph. added.)
 Lycophron, Alexandria, in Callimachus, Lycophron, Aratus, trans. A.W. Mair (London: William Heinemann, 1921), 441-43. (Emph. added.)
 Jonathan Ben-Dov, Head of All Years: Astronomy and Calendars at Qumran in Their Ancient Context (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2008), 179. (Emph. added.)
 Hamish Lindsay, Tracking Apollo to the Moon (London: Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2001), 1.
 Robin Heath, Sun, Moon, & Earth (Markham: Fitzhenry and Whitside, 1999-2001), 14.
 Joseph Campbell, Myths of Light: Eastern Metaphors of the Eternal (Novato: New World Library, 2003), 16.
 R. Tom Zuidema, “The Sidereal Lunar Calendar of the Incas,” in Archaeoatronomy in the New World: American Primitive Astronomy, ed. by A.F. Aveni (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982-2009), 103. (Emph. Added.)
 Ray P. Norris, “Searching for the Astronomy of Aboriginal Australians,” in Astronomy and Cosmology in Folk Traditions and Cultural Heritage, ed. J. Vaiškūnas (Klaipėda: Klaipėda University Press, 2009), 248. (Emph. added.)
 Theophilus of Antioch, Ad Autolycum, trans. R.M. Grant (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), 1.13.
 Tertullian of Carthage, De Resurrectione Carnis, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Volume III, eds. A. Roberts and J. Donaldson, trans. P. Holmes (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1885-1994), 553.
 Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures, in Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series: Volume VII, eds. P. Schaff and H. Wace, trans. E.H. Gifford (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1894-1996), 136.
 Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 170. (Emph. added.)
 Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Vol. I (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1973), 93.
 Ibid. 131.
 Ibid. 133. (Emph. added.)
 Thomas G. Allen, The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 59. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 158.
 Ibid. 219-20.
 Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Volume III: The Late Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980-2006), 31. (Emph. added.)
 Plutarch, Moralia, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume V, trans. F.C. Babbitt, (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936-62), 103-07. (Emph. added.)
 Jan Assman, The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs, trans. A. Jenkins (New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1996-2002), 89. (Emph. added.)
 Andrea Vianello, “The Ship and Its Symbolism in European Prehistory,” in Cognitive Archaeology as Symbolic Archaeology, eds. F. Coimbra and G. Dimitriadis (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2008), 29. (Emph. added.)
 Edward Bleiberg, Arts & Humanities Through the Eras: Ancient Egypt 2675-322 B.C.E. (Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2005), 2. (Emph. added.)
 Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic (New York: Quill, 1980-2001), 113.
 Faulkner (1969), 144. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 170. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 216. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 253. (Emph. added.)
 Ibid. 280. (Emph. added.)
 Bojana Mojsov, Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005), 51-52. (Emph. added.)
 Patrick E. McGovern, Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins of Viniculture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003), 135. (Emph. added.)
 Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973-2006), 123. (Emph. added.)
 William K. Simpson, “The Stela of Iykhernofret,” in The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry, ed. W.K. Simpson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 426. (Emph. added.)
 Martyn Smith, Religion, Culture, and Sacred Space (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 54. (Emph. added.)
 William K. Simpson, “The Stela of Iykhernofret,” in The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry, ed. W.K. Simpson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 427. (Emph. added.)
 Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001-05), 228.
 Simpson, loc. cit. (Emph. added.)
 Assmann, op. cit. 228-29.
 Simpson, loc. cit.
 Assmann, op. cit. 229. (Emph. added.)
 Steven Snape, Ancient Egyptian Tombs: The Culture of Life and Death (Chichester: Blackwell Publishing, 2011), 129. (Emph. added.)
 Theophrestus of Eresus, Enquiry into Plants, based on translation by Sir Arthur Hort (London: William Heinemann, 1916), 147. (Emph. added.).
 Pliny the Elder, Natural History, in Pliny: Natural History, Books 17-19, trans. H. Rackham (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961), 223. (Emph. added.)
 Erik Hornung and Theodor Abt, The Egyptian Book of Gates (Zurich: Living Human Heritage Publications, 2014), 258-59.
 Plutarch, in Babbitt (1936-62), 153.
 Chambers 21st Century Dictionary, eds. M. Robinson and G. Davidson et al (London: Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd., 1996-2008), 684.
 Vincent A. Tobin, “Love Songs and the Songs of the Harper,” in The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry, ed. W.K. Simpson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 322. (Emph. added.)
 John T. Ramsey, Cicero: Philippics I-II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 291. (Emph. added.)
 Cicero, Pro Murena §28, in Cicero: Ten Speeches, trans. J.E.G. Zetzel (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2009), 138, n.37. (Emph. added.)
 William F. Richardson, Numbering and Measuring in the Classical World: An Introductory Handbook (Auckland: St. Leonards Publications, 1985), 11.
 Tim G. Parkin, Old Age in the Roman World: A Cultural and Social History (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), 28.