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And the Third Day He shall Rise Again: The Lunar Osiris Easter Special, Part 5

emptytomb.jpg

Fig. 1

Welcome to the fifth and final installment in this series. I’d like to begin by referring back to Part 1, in which it was established that Osiris was one of the lunar gods of ancient Egypt, in particular the god of the moon during the spring season. In light of this fact about Osiris, many motifs in his mythos become conspicuous in how they parallel with lunar phenomena. One such phenomenon is the new moon phase of a lunar cycle. This occurs when, as per our terrestrial perspective, the moon moves closer in proximity to the sun in our sky, thus reflecting less and less of the sun’s light as it wanes (i.e. “dies). Eventually the moon is on the same side of the earth as the sun (and occasionally they are in perfect alignment, resulting in a solar eclipse). This is sometimes referred to as the solar-lunar conjunction.

eclipse

Fig 2: The darkened moon and the sun appear to merge into one during their conjunction. “May the darkened sun make Osiris blessed on earth and powerful in the west.”- Book of the Dead, Spell 168 A b S 10 (Allen, p.164). Sound familiar, no?

osiris-sun-disc.jpg

Fig. 3: The lunar Osiris merges with both the moon and the sun; from the gilded shrine of Tutankhamen, 14th century BCE.

When this occurs, the moon reflects no sunlight that is visible here on earth, thus covering the moon entirely in darkness (i.e. “burying” it). To the naked eyes of any human observers, this burial of the moon in darkness traditionally looked like it lasted for a period of three days, then a tiny sliver of a crescent moon becomes visible (i.e. “alive”) once again.

The moon first appears on the third day, it becomes visible as full moon on the sixteenth. It wanes the remaining time (of the month) during 13 days.

Heraclitus of Ephesus, Commentary on Odyssey XX, Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 3710 col. iii, 7-11 (6th-5th cen. BCE) [1]

It indicates fair weather if the outline of the moon on the third day is bright.

Theophrastus of Eresus, On Weather Signs 51 (4th cen. BCE) [2]

From them thou canst learn touching the month that is begun. If she is slender and clear about the third day, she heralds calm: if slender and very ruddy, wind; but if thick and with blunted horns she show but a feeble light on the third and fourth night, her beams are blunted by the South wind or imminent rain. If on the third night neither horn nod forward or lean backward, if vertical they curve their tips on either side, winds from the West will follow that night. … The signs of the half Moon are followed by those of the fourth day from the end of the waning month, and they in their turn by those of the third day of the new month.

Aratus of Soli, Phaenomena 780-810 (3rd cen. BCE)[3]

Numerous reports trace the day on which the moon disappears (UD.NÁ.A, ūm bubbuli). According to SAA VII §346, the moon ideally vanishes on day 27 and remains covered for a maximum period of three days.

Dr. Jonathan Ben-Dov, Head of All Years: Astronomy and Calendars at Qumran in Their Ancient Context [4]

The Sun is always the same, but the Moon’s appearance to us on Earth changes – waxing, waning, disappearing, then returning after three nights.

Hamish Lindsay, Tracking Apollo to the Moon [5]

The Moon then disappears for about three days, lost in the light of the Sun at the new moon.

Robin Heath, Sun, Moon, & Earth [6]

The Moon is in turn a symbol of death and resurrection, the eternal recurrence. The Moon remains the high symbol of the dead and resurrecting god … three days in the tomb, just as the Moon is three days dark.

Joseph Campbell, Myths of Light: Eastern Metaphors of the Eternal [7]

Observation of the four pillars on mountain Picchu enabled the Incas to define the day when the sun sets in the anti-Zenith position and a monthlong period around the date of August 18. With this observation they fixed within the solar year a synodic lunar year of twelve months counted from June 6, starting with three days of invisible moon.

Dr. R. Tom Zuidema, in Archaeoatronomy in the New World: American [8]

The Yolngu people call the Moon Ngalindi and he too travels across the sky. Originally, he was a fat lazy man (corresponding to the full Moon) for which he was punished by his wives, who chopped bits off him with their axes, producing the waning Moon. He managed to escape by climbing a tall tree to follow the Sun, but was mortally wounded, and died (the new Moon). After remaining dead for 3 days, he rose again, growing round and fat (the waxing Moon), until, after two weeks his wives attacked him again. The cycle continues to repeat every month. Until Ngalindi first died, everyone on Earth was immortal, but he cursed humans and animals so that only he could return to life. For everyone else, death would thereafter be final.
The Arnhem Land stories go much further, even explaining why the Moon is associated with tides. When the tides are high, water fills the Moon as it rises. As the water runs out of the Moon, the tides fall, leaving the Moon empty for three days. Then the tide rises once more, refilling the Moon. So, although the mechanics are a little different from our modern version, the Yolngu people obviously had an excellent understanding of the motions of the Moon, and its relationship to the tides.

Dr. Ray P. Norris, in Astronomy and Cosmology in Folk Traditions and Cultural Heritage [9]

This death, burial, and resurrection of the moon is something even the “early church fathers” of the so-called Good Shepherd’s religion acknowledged and used it as a metaphor for the resurrection promised in their holy scriptures.

If you wish to behold a still more marvelous sight, taking place to provide proof of resurrection not only from matters on earth but also from those in heaven, consider the monthly resurrection of the moon, how it wanes, dies, and rises again.

Theophilus of Antioch, Ad Autolycum 1.13 [10]

Readorned also are the mirrors of the moon, which her monthly course had worn away. … The whole, therefore, of this revolving order of things bears witness to the resurrection of the dead.

Tertullian of Carthage, De Resurrectione Carnis XII [11]

Take further a manifest proof of the resurrection of the dead, witnessed month by month in the sky and its luminaries.  The body of the moon vanishes completely, so that no part of it is any more seen, yet it fills again, and is restored to its former state; and for the perfect demonstration of the matter, the moon at certain revolutions of years suffering eclipse and becoming manifestly changed into blood, yet recovers its luminous body:  God having provided this, that thou also, the man who art formed of blood, mightest not refuse credence to the resurrection of the dead, but mightest believe concerning thyself also what thou seest in respect of the moon.

Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture XVIII.10 [12]

And wouldn’t you know it, the New Moon phase is said to be the time frame during which Osiris’ burial & resurrection take place.

Osiris the King … may you be manifest at the New Moon.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 483 § 1012  (27th-22nd century BCE) [13]

O you Sole One who shines as the moon.

Coffin Texts, Spell 93 II, 64 (21st-18th century BCE) [14]

O you Sole One who rises in the moon, O you Sole One who shines in the moon.

Coffin Texts, Spell 152 II, 260 [15]

KNOWING THE SOULS OF THE NEW MOON, ENTERING INTO THE HOUSE OF OSIRIS OF DJEDU.

Coffin Texts, Spell 155 II, 308 [16]

(O) Osiris … (Where, pray, art thou on blacked-out-moon day while the corpse is silent?)

Book of the Dead, Spell 64 variant S 18 (16th-11th century BCE) [17]

Hi, Osiris. … Thou dawnest as the Moon.

Book of the Dead, Spell 162 variant S 2 [18]

August Mummy, Osiris … Raise thyself, Moon that circles the Two Lands.

Book of the Dead, Spell Pleyte 168 S 52, 54 [19]

May I renew my youth like the moon.

Inscription of the Statue of Montemhet from Karnak § 11 (7th cen. BCE) [20]

Moreover, at the time of the new moon in the month of Phamenoth they celebrate a festival to which they give the name of “Osiris’s coming of the Moon,” and this marks the beginning of the spring. Thus they make the power of Osiris to be fixed in the Moon.

Plutarch, Moralia 368A (1st cen. CE)[21]

Even after he initially died, the body of Osiris could not rest in peace. It endured many trials- decomposition, dismemberment, reconstitution, seventy days of mummification, suspension upon a tree for seven months, etc. But eventually, after going through all of that, Osiris was finally laid to rest in his tomb. This involved many funerary rites which became annual holidays, such as a great procession with the singing of lamentation hymns, and most importantly, the reciting of the magical spells of the holy scriptures which were inscribed on the tomb walls and coffins.

We must assume that the Pyramid Texts are an exact replica, on the subterranean walls of the tomb, of the texts recited during the mummification and burial rituals.

Dr. Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs [22]

The texts were inscribed to be read from the burial chamber to the antechamber, understood as the ‘horizon’, and would have accompanied the deceased pharaoh from the tomb to the sun, a journey also symbolized by the architecture.

Dr. Andrea Vianello, in Cognitive Archaeology as Symbolic Archaeology  [23]

2371-2350 King Unas includes the first known Pyramid Texts (spells recited during the royal funeral) carved inside his pyramid at Saqqara.

Dr. Edward Bleiberg, Arts & Humanities Through the Eras: Ancient Egypt 2675-322 B.C.E. [24]

Most believe that the spells are intended to be read from the antechamber inward, concluding with the burial chamber. This order is logical if the spells were to be recited by the priests at the time that the body of the pharaoh was carried into the burial chamber.

Dr. Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic [25]

The day of the burial was traditionally the day the magical spells and rituals of the tomb were performed. Osiris did not remain in this tomb for long, however, for the primary objective of these spells was to raise him (and those deceased Egyptians who identified with him in their last rites) from the dead. The texts state that this occurred on the third day after this burial in the tomb.

Raise yourself as Osiris … the three-day festival is celebrated for you, you are pure for the New Moon, your appearing is for the monthly festival.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 437 § 793-94 (27th-22nd century BCE)  [26]

Raise yourself, Osiris the King … May you be pure at the monthly festival, may you be manifest at the New Moon, may the three-day festival be celebrated for you.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 483 § 1012 [27]

O my father Osiris the King … Awake, [stand up(?) at yonder] eastern [side] of the sky at this place [where the gods] are born, [when there comes this time of tomorrow and this time of the third day; my father the King] will be born [on] yonder eastern side of [the sky] where the gods are born, when there comes this time of tomorrow and this time of the third day.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 556 § 1382-84 [28]

Raise yourself, you eldest son of Geb … for whom the three-day festival is celebrated! May you appear for the monthly festival, may you be pure for the New Moon festival.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 610 § 1710-11 [29]

O King, there comes this time of tomorrow and this time of three days; a stairway to the sky is [set up] for you among the Imperishable Stars.

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 667 § 1941 [30]

These three days were remembered in ritual, as recorded on the Stela of Ikhernofret, 19th century BCE. On the first day of the Great Procession, Osiris was buried in his tomb. There he remained through the next day, the night of the Haker Festival, when Horus finally defeated Seth. And there Osiris continued to remain on into the following day after that, the third day of burial- the day on which he was resurrected and brought into his temple.

Praeneste_-_Nile_Mosaic_-_Section_16

Fig. 4: The funerary procession of Osiris; from the Nile Mosaic of Praeneste, 1st century CE.

After the chest was buried the death of the god was mourned for three days and nights. … The festival culminated with the celebration of the resurrection. The pillar of Osiris – the ancient symbol of the harvesters – was erected in the temple court to the jubilant rejoicing of the assembled crowds and the living image of the resurrected one brought out on a portable boat and displayed. The Egyptian phrase for a religious festival was “god’s appearance.” Merriment and dancing concluded the weeklong gathering. Ikernofret, an official at the court of Senusret III, wrote the earliest account of the festival.

Dr. Bojana Mojsov, Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God [31]

An orgy lasting for three days was centered around a funerary feast to Osiris, who was called “The Lord of wine through [or during] the inundation,” a title that had first been applied to this resurrection and fertility god in the Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts.

Dr. Patrick E. McGovern, Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins of Viniculture [32]

The text is of unusual interest because it provides an account, albeit a veiled one, of the annually performed “mysteries of Osiris.” Holding high office under Sesostris III, Ikhernofret was charged with the organization of the annual festival of the god in which the statue of Osiris journeyed between his temple and his tomb amid scenes of combat which reenacted the god’s kingship, death, and resurrection.

Dr. Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms [33]

I acted according to everything His majesty commanded in making effective what my lord commanded for his father, Osiris-Foremost-of-the-Westerners, lord of Abydos, the great powerful one within the Thinite Nome. I performed (the duty of) “his beloved son” for Osiris-Foremost-of-the-Westerners, I making effective (for him?) the great (barque?), eternal and enduring. … I assigned the hourly priests of the temples to carry out their duties and I had them know the rituals of each day and the festivals of the beginnings of the year.

Stela of Ikhernofret § 10-14 [34]

Ikhernofret mentions “the rituals that pertain to each day and the festivals at the start of the seasons.” Each day evidently had its ritual requirements.

Dr. Martyn Smith, Religion, Culture, and Sacred Space [35]

So on the first day of the festival, Osiris was buried:

I conducted the great procession following the god at his footsteps. I caused the god’s barque to sail on, with Thoth leading the voyage. … I cleared the god’s paths to his cenotaph tomb in front of Poqer.

Stela of Ikhernofret § 18-20 [36]

The “Great Procession” in the Neshmet-barque: … What is described here is the funeral procession of Osiris.

Dr. Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt [37]

On the second day, he was avenged by Horus:

I avenged Wen-nofer on that day of the great fighting, and I felled all his enemies on the sand banks of Nedit.

Stela of Ikhernofret § 21 [38]

“That day of battle” alludes to the contending of Horus and Seth, that part of the festival drama which is called “the night of the battling Horus” or “the night of the Haker festival” in other texts. In the mortuary cult, this night corresponds to the “night of vindication,” when the Judgment of the Dead occurred at the conclusion of the embalming process. On this night, a wake was held.

Dr. Assmann, op cit. [39]

Sagittarius

Fig. 5: Horus battles Seth in the form of a bull, while guarded by Sagittarius; from the Temple of Dendera. Notice the appearance of Sagittarius there. It perfectly fits the description in a certain scripture which states: “And the shapes of the locusts were like unto horses prepared unto battle; and on their heads were as it were crowns like gold, and their faces were as the faces of men. And they had hair as the hair of women, and their teeth were as the teeth of lions. And they had breastplates, as it were breastplates of iron; and the sound of their wings was as the sound of chariots of many horses running to battle. And they had tails like unto scorpions, and there were stings in their tails.” How conspicuous.

And on the third day, Osiris rises from the dead and returns to his palace:

I had him proceed within the Great Barque and it carried his beauty, gladdening the eastern deserts and [creating] joy in the heart of the western deserts when they saw the beauties of the neshmet-barque as it put to land at Abydos and as it brought back [Osiris-Foremost-of-the-Westerners, lord of] Abydos to his palace. And I followed the god into his temple, his purification done, his throne widened.

Stela of Ikhernofret § 22-24 [40]

The last act of the festival was the return of the god to the temple. Just as the procession to U-poqer was celebrated as a funeral procession and the night spent there as the “night of vindication,” so the return was interpreted as a triumphal entry of the vindicated and resurrected Osiris into his palace.

Assmann, op cit. [41]

A series of processions at Abydos was carried out in proper order: ‘I conducted the Great Procession, following the god in his steps … in his beautiful regalia he proceeded to the domain of Peqer … I made him enter the Great Barque … it brought [Osiris] to his palace.’ This ritual sequence, often referred to as the ‘Mysteries of Osiris’, appears to be a form of passion play, re-enacting the death and rebirth of Osiris in a mythical environment.

Dr. Steven Snape, Ancient Egyptian Tombs: The Culture of Life and Death [42]

Note there that Osiris’ bodily resurrection occurred in his tomb- here on Earth, and that his resurrected body returned to his palace in Abydos- a city here, on Earth, as thoroughly covered in a previous article.

Anyway, recall from Part 2 of this series how that Osiris’ role as god of the springtime moon by extension made him a god of the springtime grain. Due to this fact, many motifs in his mythos not only correlate with the cycles of the moon, but also correlate with the cycles of grain crops, especially barley and wheat. Well, it just so happens that Egyptian barley was said to likewise rise from out of the earth on the third day after being buried- just like Osiris.

Barley in Egypt is said to come up on the third day.

Theophrastus of Eresus, Enquiry into Plants 8.1.6 (4th cen. BCE)[43] 

In Egypt leguminous plants emerge on the third day. In barley one end of the grain sends out a root and the other a blade, which flowers before the other corn.

Pliny the Elder, Natural History 28.10 (1st cen. CE) [44]

Brilliance for your barley … when grain grows, Osiris emerges.

Book of Gates, 7th Hour, Scene 46 (16th-11th cen. BCE) [45]

Osiris is being buried at the time when the grain is sown and covered in the earth and that he comes to life and reappears when plants begin to sprout.

Plutarch, Moralia 377B[46]

Barley sprouting.gif

Fig. 6: “Except a grain fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit.”

This is quite similar to the holy feasts of the Good Shepherd’s religion, especially those which allegedly symbolize his death & resurrection. His ancestors had a multi-day feast celebrating the time they were passed over by Death, which was when Mr. Good Shepherd was later buried. Then on the third day his ancestors celebrated the Feast of the First-Fruits of grain, in which they reaped their first crop of barley as an offering to begin the harvest season, which also happened to be the day of Good Shepherd’s resurrection.

sheafoffirstfruits

Fig. 7: “Risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept.”

Now at this point it is perhaps necessary to address the likelihood that some antagonists will attempt to claim that the new moon phase ‘does not count’ since it is not a full 72 hours. Such an objection is ignorant of the method of time measurement known as inclusive reckoning, which was in heavy use in ancient times, and is still used in certain areas of the world even today. And it was most certainly used by Mr. Good Shepherd and others in his scriptures, and was also used in ancient Egypt. Inclusive reckoning includes a unit of time in the sum total so long as any portion of the unit falls within the stretch of time being measured. Thus an event that overlaps 3 calendar days is counted as three days, even if the overlap does not include all 24 hours of the first or last day. By inclusive reckoning, a newborn infant is classified as a 1 year old, since the child is already in the first year of his/her life, even though it is only the 1st rather than the 365th day of said year. Inclusive reckoning is how Mr. Good Shepherd claimed to rise from the dead after three days even though it was likewise not a full 72 hours, for he was buried on a Friday evening- day 1, remained there through Saturday- day 2, and then resurrected on Sunday morning- day 3.

Inclusive reckoning ê noun a method of counting in which both the first and last term is counted ¬ by inclusive reckoning, Easter Sunday is the third day after Good Friday.

Chambers 21st Century Dictionary [47]

There are also stories in this folklore in which the inclusive reckoning method is laid out in unambiguous terms, as the scriptures state- “I cast out devils, and I do cures to day and to morrow, and the third day I shall be perfected.” Other such scriptures say- “he hath smitten, and he will bind us up. After two days will he revive us: in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight.” In the same manner, the texts of ancient Egypt used such unambiguous language to indicate inclusive reckoning.

Come and pass the day in happiness,

Tomorrow, and the day after tomorrow,

Even for three days, sitting beneath my shade.

The Turin Love Songs: Songs of the Orchard [48]

So today + tomorrow + “the day after” = “three days.” The afore-cited Pyramid Texts were just as clear, explicitly stating “this time of tomorrow and this time of the third day.” To bring this point to a close, the ancient usage of inclusive reckoning can also be seen in the following scholarly examples.

26 Post diem tertium: 17 March (see Phil. 1.1. die n.), which was the third day after the murder of Caesar on the 15th by inclusive reckoning, ‘two days later’ in our parlance.

Dr. John T. Ramsey, Cicero: Philippics I-II [49]

“I think it’s pretty remarkable that so many men of such intelligence, after so many years, still can’t make up their minds whether to say ‘on the third day’* or ‘the day after tomorrow’” …

*The Romans used inclusive reckoning; we would say “on the second day.”

Cicero and Dr. James E.G. Zetzel, in Cicero: Ten Speeches [50]

Celsus draws attention to the use of inclusive reckoning when he states that ‘the 11th day is not the fourth but the fifth after the 7th’ .

Dr. William F. Richardson, Numbering and Measuring in the Classical World: An Introductory Handbook [51]

By the system of inclusive reckoning, when one states “two years ago” one means, in effect, “last year.”

Dr. Tim G. Parkin, Old Age in the Roman World: A Cultural and Social History [52]

It is incontestable- Osiris was believed to have risen from the dead on the third day after his burial, and this belief existed for many centuries before the Good Shepherd came along. Thus concludes the final portion of the Lunar Osiris Easter Special. I hope you all have a better understanding and newfound appreciation for this holiday season.

‘Til next time:

hotep

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Notes

[1] Andrei V. Lebedev, The Logos of Heraclitus: a Reconstruction of his Thought and Word (St. Petersburg: Nauka Publishers, 2014), 31. (Emph. added.)

[2] Theophrastus of Eresus, On Weather Signs 51, in Theophrastus: Enquiry Into Plants and Minor Works on Odours and Weather Signs, Vol. II, trans. A. Hort (London: William Heinemann, 1916), 427. (Emph. added.)

[3] Lycophron, Alexandria, in Callimachus, Lycophron, Aratus, trans. A.W. Mair (London: William Heinemann, 1921), 441-43. (Emph. added.)

[4] Jonathan Ben-Dov, Head of All Years: Astronomy and Calendars at Qumran in Their Ancient Context (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2008), 179. (Emph. added.)

[5] Hamish Lindsay, Tracking Apollo to the Moon (London: Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2001), 1.

[6] Robin Heath, Sun, Moon, & Earth (Markham: Fitzhenry and Whitside, 1999-2001), 14.

[7] Joseph Campbell, Myths of Light: Eastern Metaphors of the Eternal (Novato: New World Library, 2003), 16.

[8] R. Tom Zuidema, “The Sidereal Lunar Calendar of the Incas,” in Archaeoatronomy in the New World: American Primitive Astronomy, ed. by A.F. Aveni (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982-2009), 103. (Emph. Added.)

[9] Ray P. Norris, “Searching for the Astronomy of Aboriginal Australians,” in Astronomy and Cosmology in Folk Traditions and Cultural Heritage, ed. J. Vaiškūnas (Klaipėda: Klaipėda University Press, 2009), 248. (Emph. added.)

[10] Theophilus of Antioch, Ad Autolycum, trans. R.M. Grant (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), 1.13.

[11] Tertullian of Carthage, De Resurrectione Carnis, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Volume III, eds. A. Roberts and J. Donaldson, trans. P. Holmes (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1885-1994), 553.

[12] Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures, in Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series: Volume VII, eds. P. Schaff and H. Wace, trans. E.H. Gifford (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1894-1996), 136.

[13] Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 170. (Emph. added.)

[14] Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Vol. I (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, Ltd, 1973), 93.

[15] Ibid. 131.

[16] Ibid. 133. (Emph. added.)

[17] Thomas G. Allen, The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 59. (Emph. added.)

[18] Ibid. 158.

[19] Ibid. 219-20.

[20] Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Volume III: The Late Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980-2006), 31. (Emph. added.)

[21] Plutarch, Moralia, in Plutarch’s Moralia: Volume V, trans. F.C. Babbitt, (London: William Heinemann Ltd., and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936-62), 103-07. (Emph. added.)

[22] Jan Assman, The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs, trans. A. Jenkins (New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1996-2002), 89. (Emph. added.)

[23] Andrea Vianello, “The Ship and Its Symbolism in European Prehistory,” in Cognitive Archaeology as Symbolic Archaeology, eds. F. Coimbra and G. Dimitriadis (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2008), 29. (Emph. added.)

[24] Edward Bleiberg, Arts & Humanities Through the Eras: Ancient Egypt 2675-322 B.C.E. (Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2005), 2. (Emph. added.)

[25] Bob Brier, Ancient Egyptian Magic (New York: Quill, 1980-2001), 113.

[26] Faulkner (1969), 144. (Emph. added.)

[27] Ibid. 170. (Emph. added.)

[28] Ibid. 216. (Emph. added.)

[29] Ibid. 253. (Emph. added.)

[30] Ibid. 280. (Emph. added.)

[31] Bojana Mojsov, Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005), 51-52. (Emph. added.)

[32] Patrick E. McGovern, Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins of Viniculture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003), 135. (Emph. added.)

[33] Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973-2006), 123. (Emph. added.)

[34] William K. Simpson, “The Stela of Iykhernofret,” in The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry, ed. W.K. Simpson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 426. (Emph. added.)

[35] Martyn Smith, Religion, Culture, and Sacred Space (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 54. (Emph. added.)

[36] William K. Simpson, “The Stela of Iykhernofret,” in The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry, ed. W.K. Simpson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 427. (Emph. added.)

[37] Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001-05), 228.

[38] Simpson, loc. cit. (Emph. added.)

[39] Assmann, op. cit. 228-29.

[40] Simpson, loc. cit.

[41] Assmann, op. cit. 229. (Emph. added.)

[42] Steven Snape, Ancient Egyptian Tombs: The Culture of Life and Death (Chichester: Blackwell Publishing, 2011), 129. (Emph. added.)

[43] Theophrestus of Eresus, Enquiry into Plants, based on translation by Sir Arthur Hort (London: William Heinemann, 1916), 147. (Emph. added.).

[44] Pliny the Elder, Natural History, in Pliny: Natural History, Books 17-19, trans. H. Rackham (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961), 223. (Emph. added.)

[45] Erik Hornung and Theodor Abt, The Egyptian Book of Gates (Zurich: Living Human Heritage Publications, 2014), 258-59.

[46] Plutarch, in Babbitt (1936-62), 153.

[47] Chambers 21st Century Dictionary, eds. M. Robinson and G. Davidson et al (London: Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd., 1996-2008), 684.

[48] Vincent A. Tobin, “Love Songs and the Songs of the Harper,” in The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry, ed. W.K. Simpson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 322. (Emph. added.)

[49] John T. Ramsey, Cicero: Philippics I-II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 291. (Emph. added.)

[50] Cicero, Pro Murena §28, in Cicero: Ten Speeches, trans. J.E.G. Zetzel (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2009), 138, n.37. (Emph. added.)

[51] William F. Richardson, Numbering and Measuring in the Classical World: An Introductory Handbook (Auckland: St. Leonards Publications, 1985), 11.

[52] Tim G. Parkin, Old Age in the Roman World: A Cultural and Social History (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), 28.

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4 comments on “And the Third Day He shall Rise Again: The Lunar Osiris Easter Special, Part 5

  1. jameshiscox
    May 1, 2019

    Amazing article as always. Keep up the great work.

  2. nightshade twine
    May 2, 2019

    An interesting detail that’s part of the Osiris festivals was the use of a barque that was called “Truly-Risen-is-the-Lord-of-Abydos”

    A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Alan B. Lloyd pg. 265:
    “I equiped with a cabin the barque “Truly-risen-is-the-lord-of-Abydos.”

    The Festivals of Osiris and Sokar in the Month of Khoiak: The Evidence from Nineteenth Dynasty Royal Monuments at Abydos, Katherine J. Eaton:
    “The month of Khoiak (ki hr ki, mid-October to mid November) was the fourth month of Akhet, the inundation season and this festival was performed to ensure the successful rebirth of the god Osiris and the land of Egypt…
    Although other accounts of the festival exist, this stela provides the most complete textual description of its processional equipment prior to the Ptolemaic period. It reports the use of three major barques in the procession from the Osiris Temple to Peker – the great barque, the nSmt-barque and the barque “Truly-arisen-is-the-Lord-of-Abydos”-along with a portable shrine…

    This article by Katherine J. Eaton also mentions an “Osiris fetish” which is a pole with a wig and the head of Osiris on it. The Egyptians would sometimes also hang or place a corn mummy on the pole. In one scene, Isis and Nephthys are mourning in front of this Osiris fetish. It was also associated with the Djed Pillar.

    “The Osiris Fetish is also depicted in the Chapel of Ramesses I and the Temple of Ramesses II at Abydos.43 The origins of the Osiris Fetish are obscure and debated but,44 by the Nineteenth Dynasty, the fetish seems to have represented the head reliquary of Osiris Khentyimentiu.45 The Osiris Fetish essentially consists of a wig, sometimes with a face, stuck onto a plain pole…
    …golden figures of the king, wearing the nemes-headdress, support the fetishpole along with protective jackals and cobras. In this case, however, some figures of the
    king are replaced by golden statuettes of Isis and Nephthys, raising their arms in a gesture of mourning…
    The scenes in the Osiris Chapel show the Osiris Fetish on two different palanquins. One representation left the pole of the fetish exposed; the other enclosed a significant portion of the pole with the shrine of Osiris’ processional barque. According to a later tradition recorded at Dendera, a corn body was made for Osiris-Khentyimentiu and attached to a head, perhaps an Osiris Fetish.91 When the fetish or its contents was attached to a corn mummy, the barque shrine may have been placed around the pole to protect the delicate corn body…
    If a body were formed upright on the pole of the head-reliquary, an image 71.5 cm tall would yield a minimum length of 3.66 m for the barque of Osiris…
    The Osiris Fetish and the dd-pillar are often juxtaposed, as on the west wall of the Chapel of Ramesses I at Abydos.”

  3. Pingback: Kettle Logic and the ol’ “Differences vs. Similarities” Argument | Mythicism.Net

  4. Pingback: By the Blood of the Lamb: The Lunar Osiris Easter Special, Part 4 | Mythicism.Net

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